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Open Access Kummwangalela Guebuza: The Mozambican General Elections of 2004 In Muidumbe and the Roots of the Loyalty of Makonde People to Frelimo Kummwangalela Guebuza: Les élections mozambicaines de 2004 à Muidumbe et les racines de la loyauté du peuple maconde envers le Frelimo Kummwangalela Guebuza: As eleições moçambicanas de 2004 em Muidumbe e as raizes da leadalde do povo maconde para com a Frelimo

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Kummwangalela Guebuza: The Mozambican General Elections of 2004 In Muidumbe and the Roots of the Loyalty of Makonde People to Frelimo Kummwangalela Guebuza: Les élections mozambicaines de 2004 à Muidumbe et les racines de la loyauté du peuple maconde envers le Frelimo Kummwangalela Guebuza: As eleições moçambicanas de 2004 em Muidumbe e as raizes da leadalde do povo maconde para com a Frelimo

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For strategic reasons, Makonde people were the backbone of the Frelimo army during the Mozambican war of independence. Since then, Makonde people are almost fanatically devoted to Frelimo. During the Mozambican general elections of December 2004, the people of the district of Muidumbe enthusiastically supported the candidature of Armando Emílio Guebuza throughout a massive electoral campaign, during which members of the other parties were often threatened and harassed. The elder women of Muidumbe organised a special ceremony to propitiate Guebuza's candidature, as if he were a boy undergoing initiation (likumbi). This shows how politics and ritual are deeply intertwined in Makonde society.

This paper addresses the issue of Makonde "ethnic" loyalty to Frelimo, through a description of the 2004 elections in Muidumbe, and historical analysis. It will try to show how Frelimo became a cornerstone of Makonde identity because of the processes of radical transformation that the Makonde society underwent during the war of liberation and in its aftermath. Pour des raisons stratégiques, les Macondes ont participé massivement à la lutte de libération nationale au Mozambique. Depuis, les Macondes sont des partisans farouches du Frelimo. À l'occasion des élections générales tenues en décembre 2004, les gens du district de Muidumbe ont soutenu avec enthousiasme la candidature d'Armando Emílio Guebuza. Au cours de la campagne électorale, les sympathisants des autres partis politiques ont été menacés et agressés. Certaines femmes âgées de Muidumbe ont organisé une cérémonie spéciale en faveur de l'élection de Guebuza, en agissant comme s'il était un garçon soumis aux rituels d'initiation (likûmbi). Cet épisode témoigne de l'entrelacs entre les domaines du politique et du rituel dans la société maconde.

Cette étude pose la question de la fidélité « ethnique » des Macondes au Frelimo, dans la description des élections de 2004 à Muidumbe nourrie d'analyses historiques. Il retrace les facteurs qui ont fait du Frelimo un pilier de l'identité maconde, et notamment les processus de transformation radicale qui s'enchaînèrent dans la société maconde pendant et à la suite de la guerre de libération.
Por razões estratégicas, os macondes participaram maciçamente na luta de libertação cacional em Moçambique. Desde então os macondes são ferozes partidários da Frelimo. Na altura das eleições gerais realizadas em Dezembro de 2004, o povo do distrito de Muidumbe apoiou com entusiasmo a candidatura de Armando Emílio Guebuza. Durante a campanha eleitoral, os simpatizantes dos outros partidos foram ameaçados e agredidos. Algumas mulheres idosas do distrito organizaram uma cerimónia especial a favor da vitória de Guebuza, agindo como se ele fosse um rapaz submetido a rituais de iniciação (likumbi). Este exemplo mostra o entrelaçado entre as áreas do político e do ritual na sociedade maconde.

Este estudo levanta a questão da fidelidade « étnica » dos macondes à Frelimo, através da descrição das eleições de 2004 em Muidumbe, alimentada por análises históricas. Retraça os factores que fizeram da Frelimo um pilar da identidade maconde, e nomeadamente os processos de transformação radical que se encadearam na sociedade maconde durante a guerra de libertação e na sequência da mesma.

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/content/journals/10.1163/176830806778698150
2006-11-01
2016-12-04

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