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Open Access The Worlds which the Portuguese, the Russians, and the Turks Created: Empires on Europe's Periphery Ces mondes que les Portugais, les Perses et les Turcs ont créés : des empires à la périphérie de l'Europe Os mundos que os portugueses, os russos e os turcos criaram : impérios na periferia da Europa

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The Worlds which the Portuguese, the Russians, and the Turks Created: Empires on Europe's Periphery Ces mondes que les Portugais, les Perses et les Turcs ont créés : des empires à la périphérie de l'Europe Os mundos que os portugueses, os russos e os turcos criaram : impérios na periferia da Europa

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The revealing analogies among the Portuguese, Russian, and Turko-Ottoman empires add analytical depth to our understanding of the evolution of modern world-system. The empires emerged simultaneously with capitalism and equally relied on the new power techniques of gunpower, bureaucracy, state control over trade, and official religion. Starting from the geopolitical margins of Anatolia, the Pyrenees, or Russian forests, the new empires soon achieved tremendous territorial gains and wealth. But after their first century of success, these empires came under the penetrating pressures of emergent capitalist forces (the Netherlands and later England).

The empires reacted by selectively adopting the organizational and technological innovations of capitalism in the bouts of Absolutist reforms under Peter I, Pombal, or during the Tanzimat period. All three empires underwent another wave of modernizing efforts through the constitutionalist revolutions in 1905-1910 that nonetheless failed to prepare them for the military catastrophe of 1914. The developmentalist dictatorships of Salazar, Atatürk, and Stalin, for all their ideological differences, equally sought to strengthen the production bases under the conditions of state direction and economic autarchy. The global wave of democratic rebellions in 1968 undercut all three versions of developmentalism pushing the bureaucratic and capitalist elites in all three states to seek the preservation of their positions through European integration – whose outcome remains to be seen. La mise en évidence des analogies entre les empires portugais, russe et turc ottoman permet d'approfondir notre compréhension de l'évolution de l'organisation mondiale contemporaine. L'émergence des empires s'est faite simultanément à celle du capitalisme, et ils ont reposé de la même façon sur les nouvelles techniques de pouvoir que sont la force des armes, la bureaucratie, le contrôle de l'État sur le commerce et la religion officielle. Partant des frontières géopolitiques de l'Anatolie, des Pyrénées ou des forêts de Russie, les nouveaux empires ont très vite atteint une expansion territoriale et une richesse considérable. Pourtant, après un premier siècle couronné de succès, ils ont subi la pression envahissante des puissances capitalistes émergentes (les Pays-Bas et, plus tard, l'Angleterre).

Ces empires ont réagi en adoptant de façon sélective les innovations techniques et organisationnelles du capitalisme au moment des réformes absolutistes de Pierre Ier, de Pombal, ou pendant la période du Tanzimat. Ils ont tous trois connu une autre vague d'efforts de modernisation à travers les révolutions constitutionnelles de 1905-1910 qui ne les ont pourtant pas préparés à la catastrophe militaire de 1914. Les dictatures développementalistes de Salazar, Atatürk et Staline, malgré toutes leurs différences idéologiques, s'efforçaient de la même façon de renforcer les bases de production dans des conditions de direction de l'État et d'autarcie économique. La vague mondiale de rébellions démocratiques de 1968 a miné ces trois versions du développementalisme, poussant les élites bureaucratiques et capitalistes dans ces trois États à chercher à préserver leur position à travers l'intégration européenne – dont le résultat reste à voir.
O evidenciar das analogias entre o império português, russo e turco otomano dá uma maior profundidade analítica à nossa compreensão da evolução do sistema mundial contemporâneo. Os impérios formaram-se simultaneamente com o capitalismo mas apostando também nos novos poderes técnicos das armas de fogo, na burocracia, no controlo do estado sobre o comércio, assim como na religião oficial. Desde as margens geopolíticas de Anatólia, dos Pirenéus, ou das florestas russas, os novos impérios conquistaram rapidamente um território imenso e tremendas riquezas. Mas após o seu primeiro século de êxitos, esses impérios foram submetidos à crescente pressão das forças capitalistas emergentes (os Países Baixos e mais tarde a Inglaterra).

Reagiram adoptando, de forma selectiva, as inovações do capitalismo ao nível da organização e da tecnologia durante o período das reformas absolutistas sob o comando de Pedro Io, do marquês de Pombal ou durante o período do Tanzimat. Mais tarde, os três tiveram que suportar outra vaga de esforços de modernização com as revoluções constitucionais entre 1905-1910, que no entanto falhou no que diz respeito à preparação à catástrofe militar de 1914. As ditaduras desenvolvimentistas de Salazar, Atatürk e Estaline, apesar de suas diferenças ideológicas, procuraram fortalecer as bases de produção em condição de supervisão do estado e de autarcia económica. A onda global de revoltas democráticas, em 1968, reduziu o peso dessas três versões de desenvolvimentismo, ao empurrar as elites burocráticas e capitalistas desses três estados para uma procura de preservação das suas posições através da integração europeia – cujas consequências permanecem por definir.

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/content/journals/10.1163/176830807783402673
2007-11-01
2015-08-29

Affiliations: 1: Northwestern University (Evanston/Chicago, IL)

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