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<title> ABSTRACT </title>When reading books on the history of computing, we are accustomed to find informations on arithmetical engines, and on the developments of the relation between logic and mathematics at the beginning of the 20th century. From a standpoint such as this, it is difficult to understand what is going on in scientific calculus between Babbage's analytical engine and the computers. This view of history simply neglects the importance of analog instruments. Certain of them, such as planimeters and integraphs, designed for measuring surfaces, materialized the theoretical integral calculus, and gave results even when the calculus did not. First invented in the beginning of the 19th century, they were essentially developed after the theoretical legitimization of the polar planimeter by Jakob Amsler (1823-1912) after 1856. This small and practical instrument quickly spread amongst the engineers of European industrial countries. Integraphs drew the curves giving the area for each point on the outline of the surfaces to be measured. They were manufactured as prototypes rather than on a large scale, and were not used to such an extent as planimeters.More specifically in England, planimeters and integraphs gained in importance with the particular implication of some engineers-physicists. And the initial system of a roller rolling on a cone or a disc was integrated into more complex apparatus. Lord Kelvin's (1824-1907) harmonic analyser used several systems (disc-sphere-cylinder) to draw different Fourier components of the periodic movement of the tides, and Kelvin devised a manner to build them in order to resolve differential equations. Several decades later, when technical problems were resolved, Douglas R. Hartree (1897-1958) followed Vannevar Bush (1890-1974) devising the differential analyser.


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