FN11 Bryan Turner, ‘Violence, Human Rights, and Piety: Cosmopolitanism versus Virtuous Exclusion in Response to Atrocity’, in T. Brudholm and T. Cushman (eds.), The Responses to Mass Atrocity (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009), p. 253.
FN22 Richard A. Wilson, The Politics of Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 119–141.
FN33 Jerome J. Shestack, ‘The Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights’, 20(2) Human Rights Quarterly (1998), p. 206.
FN44 Michael Perry, The Idea of Human Rights: Four Inquires (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998).
FN55 Paul Kurtz, Forbidden Fruit: The Ethics of Secularism (New York: Prometheus Books, 2008), p. 234.
FN66 See John Witte, Jr. and M. Christian Green, ‘Introduction’, in J. Witte, Jr. and M. C. Green (eds.), Religion and Human Rights: An Introduction (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), p. 6.
FN77 Indeed, there is wide variety of religious positions on human rights that I shall not be able to address in this article. Some of the most important include: (1) the freedom of religion; (2) the role of religion in limiting the powers of the state; (3) the manner in which religion can meet human rights needs where the state cannot; (4) religion as a system of morality that challenges Western liberalism; (5) indigenous religion and assimilation; (6) intolerance and discrimination based on religion; (6) religion as it relates to individualism and collectivism; (7) the right to solidarity; (8) religious pluralism or toleration; and so forth.
FN88 Shestack, supra note 3, p. 203.
FN99 Jeremy Waldron, ‘When Justice Replaces Affection: The Need for Rights’, 11:3 Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy (1988), pp. 628–631.
FN1010 See Ronald Dworkin, ‘Rights as Trumps’, in J. Waldron (ed.), Theories of Rights (New York: Oxford University Press, 1984), pp. 153–167.
FN1111 Wiktor Osiatynski, Human Rights and Their Limits (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009), p. 105.
FN1212 W. D. Ross, ‘What Makes Right Acts Right?’ in J. Rachels (ed.), Ethical Theory (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), p. 284.
FN1313 Osiatynski, supra note 11, p. 26.
FN1414 Paul Sieghart, The Lawful Rights of Mankind: An Introduction to the International Legal Code of Human Rights (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985), p. 31.
FN1515 See Jack Donnelly, ‘The Relative Universality of Human Rights’, 29:2 Human Rights Quarterly (2007), pp. 281–306.
FN1616 R. Scott Appleby, ‘Religion, Violence, and the Right to Peace’, in J. Witte, Jr. and M. C. Green (eds.), Religion and Human Rights: An Introduction (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012), pp. 351–352.
FN1717 As a sidelight, given the philosophical nature of my discussion, I wish to note here that I shall not deal with some of the more fascinating concepts related to religious perspectives on statehood and governance. For instance, I shall not consider whether government interests are legitimate under religious freedoms, whether religion can improve social cohesion within states, or whether religious organizations have more or less freedoms than secular ones. The present issue is with regard to the relative foundation of religion for human rights, not with regard to its foundation for all matters concerning state governance.
FN1818 Adamantia Pollis and Peter Scwab, Human Rights: Cultural and Ideological Perspectives (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1980), p. 1.
FN1919 Jack Mahoney, The Challenge of Human Rights: Origin, Development, and Significance (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2007), pp. 104–109.
FN2020 Amartya Sen, Development as Freedom (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999).
FN2121 Richard A. Wilson, ‘Culture and Rights: Anthropological Perspectives’, in J. Cowan, M. B. Dembour, and R. A. Wilson (eds.), Culture and Rights (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001), p. 6.
FN2222 Nazila Ghanea, ‘Religion, Equality, and Non-Discrimination’, in J. Witte, Jr. and M. C. Green (eds.), Religion and Human Rights: An Introduction (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012), p. 206.
FN2323 Charles Malik, ‘International Bill of Human Rights’, 5 United Nations Bulletin (1 July 1948).
FN2424 Ethna Regan, Theology and the Boundary Discourse of Human Rights (Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 2010), p. 8.
FN2525 Michael Perry, The Idea of Human Rights: Four Inquires (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), p. 11.
FN2626 Jeffrie G. Murphy, ‘The Elusive Nature of Human Dignity’, 9:3 The Hedgehog Review (2007), pp. 20–31.
FN2727 Max Stackhouse, ‘Why Human Rights Need God: A Christian Perspective’, in E. Bucar & B. Barnett (eds.), Does Human Rights Need God? (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2005), pp. 25–40.
FN2828 See David Hollenbach, The Common Good and Christian Ethics (Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2002); Jurgen Moltmann, On Human Dignity: Political Theology and Ethics (London: SCM Press, 1984); and George Newlands, Christ and Human Rights: The Transformative Engagement (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006).
FN2929 Plato, ‘Euthyphro’, in J. M. Cooper (trans.), Plato: Complete Works (Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 1997), pp. 1–16.
FN3030 Immanuel Kant, The Metaphysics of Morals (Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1991), p. 230.
FN3131 Ronald Dworkin, Taking Rights Seriously (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1978), p. 198.
FN3232 Paul G. Lauren, The Evolution of International Human Rights (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003), p. 10.
FN3333 Antonio Cassese, International Criminal Law (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003), pp. 5–14.
FN3434 Michael Freeman, Human Rights (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers Inc., 2002), p. 10.
FN3535 Lauren, supra note 32, pp. 35–46.
FN3636 Thomas L. Haskell, ‘Capitalism and the Origins of the Humanitarian Sensibility, Part 1’, 90:2 The American Historical Review (1985), pp. 339–361.
FN3737 Freeman, supra note 34, pp. 15–16.
FN3838 In spite of Paul’s view that all people are equal in Christ (Gal. 3.28), in the Letter to Philemon, he shows remarkable lack of concern for the social inequality concerning the slave Onesimus. Paul evidently did not see the need to implement his egalitarian ideal to society at large. For he maintains that slaves should remain slaves, that men should continue to dominate women, and that Christians should as a whole stay in whatever social roles they found themselves.
FN3939 Lloyd L. Weinreb, Natural Law and Justice (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1987), p. 39.
FN4040 Mahoney, supra note 19, pp. 6–7.
FN4242 Hugo Grotius, The Law of War and Peace (London: University Press, 1853), pp. 5–8.
FN4444 Mahoney, supra note 19, p. 8.
FN4545 John Locke, Two Treatises of Government, ed., P. Laslett, (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1963).
FN4646 See Micheline Ishay, The History of Human Rights: From Ancient Times to the Globalization Era (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004), p. 57.
FN4747 Locke (ed., P. Laslett), supra note 45, p. 95.
FN4848 Freeman, supra note 34, p. 10.
FN4949 Frederick Copelston, Modern Philosophy: The British Philosophers from Hobbes to Hume (New York: Doubleday Dell Publishing, 1959), pp. 123–125.
FN5050 Frederick Copelston, Modern Philosophy: The British Philosophers from Hobbes to Hume (New York: Doubleday Dell Publishing, 1959), pp. 123–125.
FN5151 Freeman, supra note 34, p. 10.
FN5252 See Audrey Chapman and Patrick Ball, ‘The Truth Commissions: Comparative Lessons from Haiti, South Africa, and Guatemala’, 23:1 Human Rights Quarterly (2001), pp. 1–43; Richard A. Wilson, ‘Anthropological Studies of National Reconciliation Processes’, 3:3 Anthropological Theory (2003), pp. 367–387; Daniel Philpott, ‘What Religion Brings to the Politics of Transitional Justice’, 61:1 Journal of International Affairs (2007), pp. 93–110; and Jason A. Klocek, ‘How Religious Actors Influence the Politics of Transitional Justice: Truth Recovery and Reconciliation in South Africa and Guatemala’ (master thesis, Georgetown University, 2009).
FN5353 Daniel Philpott, ‘What Religion Brings to the Politics of Transitional Justice’, 61:1 Journal of International Affairs (2007), p. 94.
FN5454 Daniel Philpott, ‘When Faith Meets History: The Influence of Religion on Transitional Justice’, in T. Brudholm and T. Cushman (eds.), The Religious in Responses to Mass Atrocity: Interdisciplinary Perspectives (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2009), p. 179.
FN5555 Philpott, supra note 53, p. 93.
FN5656 Chapman and Ball, supra note 52, pp. 2–3.
FN5757 Peter L. Berger, ‘Secularism in Retreat’, 46 The National Interest (1997), p. 3.
FN5858 Ahmad Nader Nadery, ‘Peace or Justice? Transitional Justice in Afghanistan’, 1 The International Journal of Transitional Justice (2007), p. 177.
FN5959 Philpott, supra note 53, pp. 101–102.
FN6060 Tristan Anne Borer, Challenging the State: Churches as Political Actors in South Africa, 1980–1994 (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1998), pp. 63–67.
FN6161 See E. Doxtander & P. J. Salazar, eds., Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa—The Fundamental Documents (Claremont, South Africa: New Africa Books, 2007).
FN6262 Desmond Tutu, No Future Without Forgiveness (New York: Doubleday Press, 1999), p. 74.
FN6363 Klocek, supra note 52, p. 49.
FN6464 See Nick Cullather, Secret History: The CIA’s Classified Account of Its Operations in Guatemala, 1952-1954 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999).
FN6565 Klocek, supra note 52, p. 58.
FN6666 Ethna Regan, Theology and the Boundary Discourse of Human Rights (Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 2010), pp. 107–114.
FN6767 See Gustavo Gutierrez, A Theology of Liberation: History, Politics, Salvation (New York: Orbis Books, 1971).
FN6868 Klocek, supra note 52, pp. 65–69.
FN6969 Philpott, supra note 53, p. 102.
FN7070 Dawn L. Rothe and Christopher W. Mullins, ‘Building Justice after War: The Use of Multiple Post-Conflict Justice Mechanisms’, 35:3 Social Justice (2009), p. 89.
FN7171 Alexander Betts, ‘Should Approaches to Post-Conflict Justice and Reconciliation be Determined Globally, Nationally or Locally?’ The European Journal of Development Research 17:4 (2005), p. 747.
FN7272 Ibid., p. 754.
FN7373 Chapman and Ball, supra note 52, p. 40.
FN7474 Richard A. Wilson, ‘Anthropological Studies of National Reconciliation Processes’, 3:3 Anthropological Theory (2003), p. 371.
FN7575 Philpott, supra note 53, p. 104.
FN7676 Appleby, supra note 16, pp. 349–352.
FN7777 Roger Trigg, Morality Matters (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2005), pp. 161–162.
FN7878 Elizabeth M. Bucar and Barbra Burnett, ‘Introduction’, in E. Bucar & B. Burnett (eds.), Does Human Rights Need God? (Cambridge: William B. Eeerdmans Publishing Company, 2005), p. 18.