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Regional Sub-State Diplomacy from a Comparative Perspective: Quebec, Scotland, Bavaria, Catalonia, Wallonia and Flanders

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Regions are nowadays generating an increasing amount of diplomatic activity, both in quantitative and qualitative terms. This article studies the emergence of regional sub-state entities as diplomatic actors, and an in-depth comparative study is made of the external relations of Quebec, Scotland, Bavaria, Catalonia, Wallonia and Flanders. The following dimensions are studied: (1) the definition of foreign policy; (2) the diplomatic instruments that are utilized; (3) the organizational structure and operation of foreign affairs; and (4) the character of the representations abroad. Based upon a comparative study of the empirical data, the article argues that boundaries between diplomacy (as generated by states) and sub-state diplomacy are visibly watering down.

Affiliations: 1: Department of Political Sciences, Faculty of Political and Social Sciences University of Antwerp Sint-Jacobstraat 2, BE-2000 Antwerp, Belgium, Email:


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