Agier Michel Commerce et sociabilité. Les négociants soudanais du quartier zongo de Lomé (Togo) 1983 Paris Orstom
Bastide Roger Le proche et le lointain 2000 Paris Harmattan
Bertoncello Brigitte "‘Les Chungking Mansions à Hong Kong : tour de Babel africaine dans un quartier d’affaires en rénovation’" La Chine et l’Afrique: regards historiques, dynamiques spatiales et mobilités croisées 2009
Brigitte Bertoncello , Bredeloup Sylvie Colporteurs africains à Marseille. Un siècle d’aventures 2004 Paris Autrement
Brigitte Bertoncello , Bredeloup Sylvie "‘The emergence of new African trading posts in Hong Kong and Guangzhou’" China Perspective 2007 Vol 218 94 105
Bodomo Adams B. Cultural and linguistic parallels between Africa and China: the case of some West African and Southern Chinese societies 2006
Bodomo Adams B. "‘The African trading community in Guangzhou; an emerging bridge for Africa-China relations’" China Quaterly 2010 Vol 2 3 693 707
Braudel Fernand La Méditerranée et le monde méditerranéen à l’époque de Philippe II 1949 Paris Colin
Bredeloup Sylvie La Diams’pora du fleuve Sénégal 2007 Paris PUM Toulouse, IRD
Bredeloup Sylvie "‘L’aventurier, une figure de la migration africaine’" Cahiers internationaux de Sociologie 2008 juillet-décembre Vol CXXV 2 281 306 http://dx.doi.org/10.3917/cis.125.0281
Cohen Abner Custom and Politics in Urban Africa. A Study of Hausa Migrants in Yoruba Towns 1969 London Routledge & Kengan
Cohen Abner Custom and Politics in Urban Africa. A study of Hausa migrants in Yoruba towns 1984 Routledge
Ebin Victoria "‘Women’s Saints and Strategies: the Expanding Role of Senegalese Women in International Trade’" Mondes en développement 1995 Vol 91 23 113 115
Gaborit Marie Les stratégies d’acteurs chinois et leur rôle dans le développement de la coopération sino-africaine. Les cas du Sénégal et de la Mauritanie 2007
Gemdev États, politiques publiques et développement en Asie de l’Est 1997 Paris Karthala
Hill Poly "‘Landlords and Brokers. A West African Trading System’" Cahiers d’Études Africaines 1966 Vol VI 3 no. 23
Izraelewicz Erik Quand la Chine change le monde 2005 Paris Éd. Fasquelle & Grasset
Lesourd Céline Au bonheur des dames, femmes d’affaires mauritaniennes de nos jours 2006
Li Zhigang , Xue Desheng , Michael Lyons , Brown Alison Ethnic Enclave of Transnational Migrants in Guangzhou: a case study of Xiaobei 2007 International Conference of Chinas Urban Land and Housing in the 21st Century 13-15 Dec Hong Kong 13
Lin Yu "Yiwu : le carrefour du made in China " Outremer 2006 Vol 15 187 193
Pliez Olivier "‘Des jeans chinois dans les rues du Caire ou les espaces discrets de la mondialisation’" Mappemonde 2007 Vol 88
Raffaele Poli , Loïc Ravenel , Besson Roger Demographic Study of Footballers in Europe / Etude démographique des footballeurs en Europe 2010 Neuchâtel CIES
Rigg Jonathan Ma Laurence J.-C. , Cartier Carolyn L. "‘Exclusion and Embeddedness: The Chinese in Thailand and Vietnam’" The Chinese Diaspora: Space, Place, Mobility and Identity 2003 Lanham Rowman & Littlefield
Rosanders E. Eva Women in a Borderland: Managing Muslim identity where Morocco meets Spain 1991 Stockholm Dept of Social Anthropology, Stockholm University
FN1 1)About 50 African migrants (settled storekeepers and visitors) were interviewed in Guangzhou in Baiyunand Yuexiudistricts; some were repeatedly interviewed over two years and in different working situations. Additional interviews were carried out in Bamako and Dakar with the family members of migrants settled in Asia. Interviews were also conducted in Guangzhou with the people in charge of associations of Ghanaian, Guinean, Malian, Nigerian, Nigerien, and Senegalese migrants. Other people in charge of associations (Guinea, Mali, and Nigeria) were also asked questions in Bangkok ( Bangrakand Sukhumvitdistricts) and Hong Kong. Discussions were also conducted with Arab traders and Chinese interpreters in Guangzhou and Hong Kong (Kowloon). But the latter remained reserved, perhaps surprised by my familiarity with African migrants.
FN2 2)There is no census of African communities in the PRC; however, according to a report written in 2007 by ‘The Border Administration Office of Guangzhou’, there were about 500,000 foreign visitors in transit in the capital of Guangdong and 15,000 foreigners residing in the city. According to Chinese researchers, there were just over 1,000 African traders in Guangzhou and nearly 32,000 African visitors identified in hostels and restaurants in the city (Li, Xue, Lyons, & Brown, 2007). According to journalistic sources there are more than 120,000 Africans permanently living in Guangzhou ( Les EchosAugust 13th 2008). My own research has shown the recent increase in illegal migration, departures related to the strengthening of police control, and finally the porosity of the status of migrants. It is therefore difficult to establish accurate estimates.
FN3 3)My previous research allowed me to locate the commercial routes set up by West African diamond dealers from Senegal, Mali, Mauritania, and Gambia from independence onwards.
FN4 4)About ten interviews were held with Malian, Guinean, and Gambian traders in precious and semi-precious stones in Bangkok, in Bangrak district (July 2008).
FN5 5)Dyed fabric whose designs are inspired by Javanese batik. These pieces of cotton mainly for African customers were first printed by Dutch and British companies before being manufactured in Africa.
FN6 6)Interview conducted in Guangzhou, July 17 2008.
FN7 7)This term refers both to age and to the timeline of arrival in China.
FN8 8)Interviews conducted in Guangzhou, July 2006 and July 2008.
FN9 9)Interview in Guangzhou, July 2006.
FN10 10)Interview in Guangzhou, July 2006.
FN11 11)Interview with a Guinean trader in Guangzhou, July 2006.
FN12 12)Two interviews conducted in Guangzhou, July 2008.
FN13 13)Interview conducted in Bangkok, July 2008.
FN14 14)Interview with a Malian traveling trader in Bangkok, July 2008.
FN15 15)Interviews with three Senegalese traveling traders in Guangzhou, July 2008.
FN16 16)Interviews in Hong Kong and Guangzhou, July 2008.
FN17 17)Interviews with a Nigerian footballer in Guangzhou, July 2006.
FN18 18)Interview conducted in Guangzhou, July 2008.
FN19 19)Interview with a Nigerian trader in Guangzhou, July 2008.
FN20 20)See the paper entitled ‘Africa town à Canton,’ Alternatives Internationales, n°36, septembre 2007 or the article written by Li, Xue, Lyons, and Brown (2007).
FN21 21)Interview with a Nigerian trader in Guangzhou, July 2008.
FN22 22)Interview with a Nigerien trader in Guangzhou, July 2008.
FN23 23)The local press mentions drug trafficking in these places, a point African informants commented on during my fieldwork: ‘ If you are African, Black African, for Chinese policemen, you’re selling drugs. It is their way of thinking. The policemen suspect and pick up all guys because of their color.’ Between 2007 and June 2008, several hundreds of Africans were arrested for drug trafficking. I did not approach this question head on but obviously if Africans are involved in the business of drugs, they are not the only ones. Other foreign communities as well as the Chinese could feel equally concerned about such trafficking.
FN24 24)In the largest church of Guangzhou, the audience is over 90% African, mostly Nigerian.
FN25 25)One month after, more than 3,000 Nigerians were arrested because their papers were not in order and they were imprisoned. Someone died trying to escape the police ( Daily Champion, August 11 2008). At the end of 2008, the sentencing to death of eight Africans accused of smuggling drugs in the PRC shook the African community and led also to an upsurge in police controls.
FN26 26)Interview with a Senegalese trader in Guangzhou, 2008 July.
FN27 27)Interview with a Guinean trader in Guangzhou, 2008 July.
FN28 28)Interview with a Congolese trader in Guangzhou, 2008 July.
FN29 29)Interview with a Guinean trader in Guangzhou, July 2008.