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FN1 1)In 2005 the number of visa over-stayers was 207,000 while the total unauthorized population was estimated to be 250,000.
FN2 2)In the 1980s quite a number of immigrants from the Middle East came to Japan, especially from Iran, since visas were easily obtained by Iranians in those days.
FN3 3)See Tsuda (2005) for an overview of the migration policy framework in Japan.
FN4 4)In many cases, the respondents were curious about the lives of African immigrants in the Netherlands and asked me about immigration policies and possible business opportunities in the Netherlands.
FN5 5)Japanese weddings are often performed in chapels with ceremonies performed by white ‘priests’ – usually exchange students or English teachers with no religious authority – and having Christian songs performed adds authenticity.
FN6 6)Although a lot of the discussions in the media on the African immigrants visible in the entertainment districts of Roppongi and Shinjuku focuses on their possible involvement in drug-related crime (Friman 2001), I did not manage to talk to representatives of this ‘alternative pathway’ to integration – or at least no one admitted to me being involved in this trade.