Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Media and Democracy in Turkey: Toward a Model of Neoliberal Media Autocracy

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the Brill platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites

image of Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication

This paper reveals the ways in which media autocracy operates on political, judicial, economic and discursive levels in post-2007 Turkish media. Newsmakers in Turkey currently experience five different systemic kinds of neoliberal government pressures to keep their voice down: conglomerate pressure, judicial suppression, online banishment, surveillance defamation and accreditation discrimination. The progression of restrictions on media freedom has increased in volume annually since 2007; this includes pressure on the Doğan Media Group, the YouTube ban, arrests of journalists in the Ergenekon trials, phone tapping/taping of political figures and the exclusion of all unfriendly reporters from political circles. The levels and tools of this autocracy eventually lead to certain conclusions about the qualities of this media environment: it is a historically conservative, redistributive, panoptic and discriminatory media autocracy.

Affiliations: 1: a) Kadir Has University, Istanbul, Turkey Email: makser@khas.edu.tr ; 2: b) Kadir Has University, Istanbul, Turkey Email: banubhawks@khas.edu.tr

10.1163/18739865-00503011
/content/journals/10.1163/18739865-00503011
dcterms_title,pub_keyword,dcterms_description,pub_author
6
3
Loading
Loading

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/18739865-00503011
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Adaklı Gülseren ,( 2001). "Yayıncılık Alanında Mulkiyet ve Kontrol [Ownership in the broadcasting sector and its regulation]". In Kejanlıoğlu Beybin ,, Celenk S. and Gülseren Adaklı (eds.), Medya Politikaları , pp. 145204. Ankara: Imge.
2. —— ( 2006). Türkiye’ de Medya Endüstrisi: Neoliberalizm Çağında Mülkiyet ve Kontrol İlişkileri[Media industry in Turkey: Ownership and control in the age of neoliberalism]. Ankara: Ütopya.
3. —— ( 2009). "The Process of Neoliberalisation and the Transformation of the Turkish Media Sector in the Context of the New Media Architecture". In Harrison Jackie ,and Wessel Bridgette (eds.), Mediating Europe: Communication in Contemporary European Culture Contents , pp. 286317. Oxford: Berghahn.
4. —— ( 2010). "2002–2008: Türk Medyasında AKP Etkisi". In Uzgel İlhan ,, and Duru Bülent (eds.), AKP Kitabı: Bir Dönüşümün , pp. 559613. Istanbul: Phoenix.
5. Akın Altug ( 2010). "Dirty Seeds of Media Transformation in Turkey: The Vertigo of Communication". EastBound 2010(2). Accessed 9 August 2012: .
6. Alemdar Korkmaz ( 2004). "The Early Years of the Republican Press". Boğaziçi Journal Vol 18( 1–2): 3541.
7. Aykol Hüseyin ( 2008). Haber Basinindan Islamci Medyaya . Istanbul: Agora Kitaplığı.
8. Bagdikian Ben H. ( 2004). The New Media Monopoly . Boston: Beacon Press.
9. BBC(2012). Turkey’s Military and the Alleged Coup Plots. Accessed 11 March 2012: , 6 January 2012.
10. Bora Tanıl ( 2002). "Cem Uzan ve Neo-Fasizmin Yeni Yuzu: Sirket Konserlerinden Partiye". Birikim Vol 162: 5360.
11. Chomsky Noam ( 2003). Media Control . New York: Seven Stories Press.
12. Cinar Menderes ( 2006). "Turkey’s Transformation Under the AKPRule". Muslim World Vol 96: 469486. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1478-1913.2006.00138.x
13. Cizre Ümit ( 2008). Secular and Islamic Politics in Turkey: The Making of the Justice and Development Party . London and New York: Routledge.
14. Cizre Ümit ,and Çınar Menderes ( 2003). "Turkey 2002: Kemalism, Islamism, and Politics in the Light of the February 28 Process". South Atlantic Quarterly Vol 102( 2–3): 309332.
15. Çölaşan Emin ( 2007). Kovulduk Ey Halkin Unutma Bizi . Ankara: Bilgi.
16. Demir Ömer ,, Acar Mustafa ,and Toprak Metin ( 2004). "Anatolian Tigers or Islamic Capital: Prospects and Challenges". Middle Eastern Studies Vol 40( 6): 166188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0026320042000282937
17. Doğan E. ( 2005). "The Historical and Discoursive Roots of the Justice and Development Party’s EU Stance". Turkish Studies Vol 6( 3): 421437. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14683840500235498
18. Eğrikavuk Işıl ( 2011). ‘ "Ekşi-users’ Raid Sour Web Freedom". Hürriyet Daily News . Accessed 22 April 2012: , 6 June 2011.
19. Elgar Katrin ,, Steinvorth Daniel ,and Hülsen Issabel ( 2009). "Political Feud in Turkey Scares Off Foreign Investors". Der Spiegel . Accessed 20 April 2012: , 25 March 2009.
20. Filkins Dexter ( 2012). "Turkey’s Jailed Journalists". New Yorker . Accessed 9 August 2012: , 9 March 2012.
21. Finkel Andrew ( 2000). "Who Guards the Turkish Press? A Perspective on Press Corruption in Turkey". Journal of International Affairs Vol 54( 1): 147166.
22. Fraser Susan ( 2011). "Turkish Website Threatens to Post More Sex Tapes". Guardian . Accessed 22 April 2012: , 18 May 2011.
23. Freedom House (2011). Accessed 17 July 2011:
24. .
25. Friedman Steven ( 2011). "Whose Freedom? South Africa’s Press, Middle-class Bias and the Threat of Control". Ecquid Novi: African Journalism Studies Vol 32( 2): 106121.
26. Gottschlich Jürgen ( 2011). "Arrested Journalist’s Book Claims Turkish Police Infiltrated by Islamic Movement". Der Spiegel . Accessed 19 April 2012: , 6 April 2011.
27. Gülalp Haldun ( 1999). "Political Islam in Turkey: The Rise and Fall of the Refah Party". Muslim World Vol 89: 2241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1478-1913.1999.tb03667.x
28. —— ( 2003). "Globalization and Political Islam: The Social Bases of Turkey’s Welfare Party". International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies Vol 33: 433448.
29. Güvenç Duygu ,( 2007). The AKP Celebrates Glorious Victory . Turkish Daily News . 23 July 2007.
30. Haber 24( 2008). "Erdoğan: Doğan gazetelerini almayın". Accessed 11 March 2012: , 19 June 2008.
31. Hafez Kai ,( 2005). "Globalization, Regionalization and Democratization: The Interaction of Three Paradigms in the Field of Mass Communication". In Hackett Robert A. ,and Zhao Yuezhi (eds.), Democratizing Global Media: One World, Many Struggles , pp. 145164. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
32. Hammarberg Thomas ( 2011). Freedom of Expression and Media Freedom in Turkey . 12 July 2011, "Report of the Commissioner for Human Rights of the Council of Europe", Strasbourg.
33. Heper Metin ,and Demirel Tanel ( 1996). "The Press and the Consolidation of Democracy in Turkey". Middle Eastern Studies Vol 32( 2): 109123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00263209608701106
34. Herman Edward S. ,and Chomsky Noam ( 2002). Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of Mass Media . New York: Pantheon.
35. Herman Edward ,and McChesney Robert ,( 1999). "The Global Media in the Late 1990s". In Mckay Hugh (ed.), The Media Reader: Continuity and Transformation , pp. 178210. London: Sage.
36. Hürriyet ( 2007). YouTube tartışması. Accessed 11 March 2012: , 8 March 2007.
37. Hürriyet ( 2008a). "Demokrasi ve özgür basını içine sindir". Accessed 11 March 2012: , 8 September 2008.
38. Hürriyet ( 2008b). "Turkish PM’ s Attack on Media Casts Shadow on Supervisory Bodies". Accessed 11 March 2012: , 9 September 2008.
39. Hürriyet ( 2008c). "Gazetecilerin Akreditasyonu Geri Verilsin". Accessed 11 March 2012: , 18 December 2008.
40. Hürriye t( 2009). "Mahkemede Bile Dinlenme Korkusu". Accessed 11 March 2012: , 17 March 2009.
41. Hürriyet ( 2011a). "1 Kaset 6 İstifa” (1 Tape 6 Resignations)". Accessed 11 March 2012: , 21 May 2011.
42. Hürriyet ( 2011b). "Arınç, medya patronlarıyla bir araya geldi". Accessed 11 March 2012: , 21 November 2011.
43. Hürriyet Daily News ( 2011a). "Turkish Police Raid Printing House, Erase Unpublished Book". Accessed 11 March 2012: , 24 March 2011.
44. Hürriyet Daily News ( 2011b). "Turkish Internet Filtering Plan ‘Unconstitutional’ Experts Say". Accessed 19 April 2012: , 5 May 2011.
45. Hürriyet Daily News ( 2011c). "Action against Turkey’s Internet Ban Demanded in Europe". Accessed 11 March 2012: , 24 May 2011.
46. Hürriyet Daily News ( 2011d). "Erdoğan’ s Bedroom Talks Illegally Taped: Minister". Accessed 11 March 2012: , 1 December 2011.
47. Jenkins Gareth H . ( 2011). "Above the Threshold, Below the Belt: The Video Campaign against the MHP". Turkey Analyst4(11). Accessed 1 March 2012: .
48. Jones Dorian ( 2011). "Critics Challenge New Internet Controls in Turkey". Voice of America . Accessed 22 April 2012: , 25 April 2011.
49. Judson D. ( 2010). "Erdoğan Seeks to Turn ‘New Page’ with Turkey’s News Media". Hürriyet Daily News . Accessed 11 January 2011: , 25 September 2010.
50. Karaca Ekin ( 2011). "State’s ‘Secure’ Internet Filter Applied on 22 November". Bianet: News in English . Accessed 22 April 2012: , 22 November 2011.
51. Kaya Raşit ( 1994). "A Fait Accompli: Transformation of Media Structures in Turkey". Metu Studies in Development Vol 21( 3): 383404.
52. —— ( 1999). "Türkiye’de 1980 Sonrası Medyanın Gelişimi ve İdeoloji Gereksinimi". Türk-İş Yıllığı’ 99 , 2 Cilt. Ankara. Accessed 19 April 2012: .
53. Kaya Raşit ,and Çakmur Barış ( 2010). "Politics and the Mass Media in Turkey". Turkish Studies Vol 11( 4): 521537. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14683849.2010.540112
54. Kayakiran Firat ( 2009). "Surveillance Spooks Turks as Wiretaps Grow". Hürriyet Daily News . Accessed 22 April 2012: , 31 March 2009.
55. Kelly Spencer ( 2011). "Internet Censorship Increases in Turkey". BBC News. Accessed 22 April 2012: , 25 November 2011.
56. Keyman E. Fuat ( 2010). "Modernization, Globalization and Democratization in Turkey: The AKP Experience and its Limits". Constellations Vol 17: 312327. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8675.2010.00596.x
57. Kiriya Iliya ,and Kachkaeva Anna ( 2011). "Economical Forms of State Pressure in Russian Regional Media". Romanian Journal of Journalism and Communication Vol 6( 2): 511.
58. Koloğlu Orhan ( 2004). "The Printing Press and Journalism in the Ottoman State". Boğaziçi Journal Vol 18( 1–2): 2733.
59. McChesney Robert ( 2008). The Political Economy of Media: Enduring Issues, Emerging Dilemmas . New York: Monthly Review Press.
60. Meyen Michael ,and Fiedler Anke ( 2011). "Media Control in the GDR as Political PR Operation. A Case Study on Structures of Public Communication in Socialist Countries". Journal of Media Research Vol 4( 1): 312.
61. Oates Sarah ( 2007). "The Neo-Soviet Model of the Media". Europe-Asia Studies Vol 59( 8): 12791297. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09668130701655150
62. Ognyanova Katherine ( 2009). "Careful What You Say: Media Control in Putin’s Russia—Implications for Online Content", Conference Papers—International Communication Association, 2009Annual Meeting.
63. Öncü Ayşe ( 2004). "The Interaction of Markets and Politics: The Remaking of the Turkish Media Industry in the 1990s". Boğaziçi Journal Vol 18( 1–2): 1126.
64. Önis Ziya ( 2004). "Turgut Özal and his Economic Legacy: Turkish Neo-Liberalism in Critical Perspective". Middle Eastern Studies Vol 40( 4): 113134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00263200410001700338
65. —— ( 2006). "Globalization and Party Transformation: Turkey’s Justice and Development Party in Perspective". In Burnell Peter (ed.), Globalizing Democracy: Party Politics in Emerging Democracies , pp. 122140. London: Routledge, Warwick Studies on Globalization.
66. Önis Ziya ,and Rubin Barry (eds.) ( 2004). The Turkish Economy in Crisis . London: Frank Cass.
67. Özbudun Ergun ( 2006). "From Political Islam to Conservative Democracy: The Case of the Justice and Development Party in Turkey". South European Society and Politics Vol 11( 3–4): 543557.
68. Ragnedda Massimo ,and Glenn Muschert W. ( 2011). "The Political Use of Fear and News Reporting in Italy: The Case of Berlusconi’s Media Control". Journal of Communications Research Vol 2( 1): 4354.
69. Rainsford Sarah ( 2008). ‘ "Deep State’ Plot Grips Turkey". BBC News . Accessed 22 April 2012: , 4 February 2008.
70. Reporters Without Borders( 2011). "Seizure and Destruction of Ahmet Sik’s Unpublished Book: A Very Dangerous Precedent". Accessed 14 February 2012: , 25 March 2011.
71. Reuters ( 2010). "Turkey Reinstates YouTube Ban". Accessed 19 April 2012: , 3 November 2010.
72. Rubin Michael ( 2005). "Green Money, Islamist Politics in Turkey". Middle East Quarterly Vol 12( 1): 1323.
73. Şahin Haluk ( 2011). Can Cekisen Bir Meslek Uzerine Son Notlar[Final notes on a dying profession]. Istanbul: Say.
74. Skinner David ,, Compton James ,and Gasher Mike ( 2005). Converging Media, Diverging Politics: Political Economy of News in the United States and Canada . Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
75. Sönmez Mustafa . ( 1996). "Türk Medya Sektöründe Yoğunlaşma ve Sonuçları". Birikim Vol 92: 7687.
76. —— ( 2010). Medya, Kültür, Para ve İstanbul İktidarı . Istanbul: Yordam.
77. Sümer Burcu ( 2010). "The Impact of Europeanisation on Policy-making in Turkey: Controversies, Uncertainities and Misfits in Broadcasting Policy (1999–2009). Ankara Üniversitesi Avrupa Toplulukları Araştırma ve Uygulama Merkezi Araştırma Dizisi", No. 35. Ankara: ATAUM.
78. Stockmann Daniela ,and Gallagher Mary E. ( 2011). "Remote Control: How the Media Sustain Authoritarian Rule in China". Comparative Political Studies Vol 44( 4): 436467. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0010414010394773
79. Strauss Delphine ( 2011). "Sex Tapes Cast Cloud over Turkey Elections. Financial Times ". Accessed 9 August 2012: , 22 May 2011.
80. Temelkuran Ece ( 2012). "Turkish Journalists are Very Frightened—But We Must Fight this Intimidation". Guardian . Accessed 14 February 2012: , 27 January 2012.
81. Tepe Sultan ( 2005). "Turkey’s AKP: A Model ‘Muslim-Democratic’ Party?" Journal of Democracy Vol 16( 3): 6982. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/jod.2005.0053
82. Tilic Dogan ( 2000). Media Ownership Structure in Turkey . Ankara: Progressive Journalists Association.
83. Today’s Zaman ( 2007). "Erdoğan Turns New Page in Second Term in Power". Accessed 11 January 2012: , 24 July 2007.
84. Today’s Zaman ( 2011a). "Filter Options not a Threat to Internet Freedoms, says BTK". Accessed 19 April 2012: , 5 May 2011.
85. Today’s Zaman ( 2011b). "Ekşi Sözlük Officials Respond to Claims of Defamation of Character". Accessed 9 August 2012: , 21 November 2011.
86. Today’s Zaman ( 2011c). "Turkish Court Accepts Online Blasphemy Case, ECtHR Ruling Precedent". Accessed 19 April 2012: , 27 December 2011.
87. Today’s Zaman ( 2012). "Court Drops Charges against Turkish Journalist after Erdoğan Withdraws Case". Accessed 19 April 2012: , 22 March 2012.
88. Tuncel Hakan ( 1994). "Bab-Ali’den İkitelli’ye". Birikim Vol 64: 3338.
89. Tunç Aslı ,( 2003). "Faustian Acts in Turkish Style: Structural Change in National Newspapers as an Obstacle to Quality Journalism in 1990–2003". In Spassov Orlin (ed.), Quality Press in Southeast Europe , pp. 306323. Sofia, Bulgaria: SOEMZ/Sofia University.
90. Vela Justin ( 2012). "Behind Bars in the Deep State". Foreign Policy . Accessed 12 January 2012: , 11 January 2012.
91. Vikilani Sione F. ( 2010). "Media Freedom and State Control in Tonga". Pacific Journalism Review Vol 16( 2): 6280.
92. Yavuz M. Hakan ( 1997). "Political Islam and the Welfare (Refah) Party in Turkey". Comparative Politics Vol 30( 1): 6382. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/422193
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/18739865-00503011
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/18739865-00503011
2012-01-01
2016-05-05

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Name:*
    Email:*
    Your details
    Name:*
    Email:*
    Department:*
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
     
     
     
    Other:
     
    Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication — Recommend this title to your library

    Thank you

    Your recommendation has been sent to your librarian.

  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation