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The Theban Kingdom of Dynasty 16: Its Rise, Administration and Politics

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This paper focuses on the emergence of the Theban kingdom of Dynasty 16 in the Second Intermediate Period and explores the historical repercussions of its assumed struggle with the declining state of Dynasty 13 centered at Itjtawy. A revision of the recent evidence from Edfu raises doubts about the alleged contemporaneity of Sobekhotep iv and Khayan. A survey of administrative titles in the sources pertaining to the Theban kingdom testifies that it arose independently based on the local power structures of the Late Middle Kingdom rather than because of a relocation from the north. The separation of the nascent Theban kingdom from the state of Dynasty 13 and a surmised consequent confrontation between these entities had an impact on the ideology of the new polity and influenced the policy of its direct successor—the state of Dynasty 17 and the early New Kingdom. The original lack of legitimacy of Dynasty 16 could have been one of the reasons for overstating the power of the Hyksos in historical texts—in order to justify Theban claims to rule in Middle and Lower Egypt.

Affiliations: 1: Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of


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