Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

A New Astronomically Based Chronological Model for the Egyptian Old Kingdom

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Journal of Egyptian History

A recently discovered inscription on an ancient Egyptian ointment jar mentions the heliacal rising of Sirius. In the time of the early Pharaohs, this specific astronomical event marked the beginning of the Egyptian New Year and originally the annual return of the Nile flood, making it of great ritual importance. Since the Egyptian civil calendar of 365 days permanently shifted one day in four years in comparison to the stars due to the lack of intercalation, the connection of a date from the Egyptian civil calendar with the heliacal rising of Sothis is vitally important for the reconstruction of chronology. The new Sothis date from the Old Kingdom (3rd–6th Dynasties) in combination with other astronomical data and radiocarbon dating re-calibrates the chronology of ancient Egypt and consequently the dating of the Pyramids. A chronological model for Dynasties 3 to 6 constructed on the basis of calculated astronomical data and contemporaneously documented year dates of Pharaohs is presented.

Affiliations: 1: University of Basel rita.gautschy@unibas.ch ; 2: University of Zurich and Flinders University Adelaide michael.habicht@iem.uzh.ch ; 3: University of Zurich francesco.galassi@iem.uzh.ch ; 4: University of Marburg daniela.rutica@googlemail.com ; 5: University of Zurich frank.ruehli@iem.uzh.ch ; 6: University of Marburg hannigr@staff.uni-marburg.de

10.1163/18741665-12340035
/content/journals/10.1163/18741665-12340035
dcterms_title,pub_keyword,dcterms_description,pub_author
10
5
Loading
Loading

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/18741665-12340035
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Abu Bakr A.M., Moustafa A.Y."“The Funerary Boat of Khufu”" Aufsätze zum 70. Geburtstag von Herbert Ricke Abu Bakr A.M. 1 16 Wiesbaden Steiner 1971
2. Anthes R. Die Felsinschriften von Hatnub Hildesheim Olms 1964
3. Aston B. Ancient Egyptian stone vessels: materials and forms Heidelberg Heidelberger Orientverlag 1994
4. Baligh R."“Oil and its importance in Egypt from the oldest times”" [oral presentation] International Congress of Egyptologists XI 2015
5. Bárta M."“Radiocarbon Dates for the Old Kingdom and their Correspondences”" Radiocarbon and the Chronologies of Ancient Egypt Shortland A.J., Ramsey C. Bronk 209 217 Oxford Oxbow Books 2013
6. Baud M., Dobrev V."“De nouvelles annals de l’Ancien Empire égyptien. Une ‘Pierre de Palerme’ pour la vie dynastie”" bifao Vol 95 1995 23 92
7. Beckerath J. von “Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten” Mainz am Rhein Philipp von Zabern 1997
8. Borchardt L."“Der zweite Papyrusfund von Kahun und die zeitliche Festlegung des mittleren Reiches der ägyptischen Geschichte”" zäs Vol 37 1899 89 103
9. Borchardt L. Das Grabdenkmal des Königs Ne-user-re Leipzig Hinrichs 1907
10. Borchardt L. Das Grabdenkmal des Königs Nefer-ir-ke-re Leipzig Hinrichs 1909
11. Borchardt L. Das Grabdenkmal des Königs Sahure, Band 1: Der Bau Leipzig Hinrichs 1910
12. Couyat J., Montet P. Les inscriptions hiéroglyphiques et hiératiques du Ouâdi Hammâmât mifao 34 Cairo IFAO 1913
13. Dee M.W."“A Radiocarbon-based Chronology for the Old Kingdom”" Radiocarbon and the Chronologies of Ancient Egypt Shortland A.J., Ramsey C. Bronk 209 217 Oxford Oxbow Books 2013
14. Depuydt L."“Sothic Chronology and the Old Kingdom”" jarce Vol 37 2000 167 168 [Crossref]
15. Dunham D., Simpson W.K. The Mastaba of Queen Mersyankh III G7530–7540 Giza Mastabas I Boston Museum of Fine Arts 1974
16. Edel E."“Die Kalksteintäfelchen”" Das Sonnenheiligtum des Königs Userkaf. Die Funde Ricke H. 2 22 Wiesbaden Franz Steiner 1969
17. Eichler E."“Untersuchungen zu den Königsbriefen des Alten Reiches”" säk Vol 18 1991 141 172
18. Eichler E. Untersuchungen zum Expeditionswesen des ägyptischen Alten Reiches Wiesbaden Harrassowitz 1993
19. Gardiner A.H."“Regnal Years and Civil Calendar in Pharaonic Egypt”" jea Vol 31 1945 11 28
20. Gardiner A.H., Peet T.E., Černý J. The inscriptions of Sinai, Part I. Introduction and Plates Oxford Oxford University Press 1952
21. Gauthier H."“Quatre nouveaux fragments de la pierre de Palerme”" Le Musée Égyptien. Recueil des Monuments et de Notices sur les Fouilles d’ÉgypteVol 3 Maspero G. 29 53 Cairo IFAO 1915
22. Gautschy R."“Der Stern Sirius im Alten Ägypten”" zäs Vol 138 1 2011 116 131
23. Goedicke H."“The Death of Pepi II”" säk Vol 15 1988 111 122
24. Goedicke H."“Four Hieratic Ostraca of the Old Kingdom”" jea Vol 54 1968 23 30
25. Goedicke H. Königliche Dokumente aus dem Alten Reich Wiesbaden Harassowitz 1967
26. Goedicke H. Die privaten Rechtsinschriften aus dem Alten Reich Wien Notring 1970
27. Gundacker R."“Materialien zur Länge der Regierung des Mykerinos”" SokarVol 21 2010 30 43
28. Gunn B."“A Sixth Dynasty letter from Saqqara”" asaé Vol 25 1925 242 255
29. Günther P., Wellauer R. Ägyptische Steingefässe der Sammlung Rudolph Schmidt (Solothurn) Ägyptologische Hefte des Orientalischen Seminars der Universität Zürich 2 Zürich Orientalisches Seminar der Universität Zürich 1988
30. Habicht M.E., Gautschy R., Siegmann R., Rutica D., Hannig R."“A New Sothis Rise on a Small Cylindrical Jar from the Old Kingdom”" gm Vol 247 2015 41 49
31. Haeny G."“Die Steinbruch- und Baumarken”" Das Sonnenheiligtum des Königs Userkaf. Die Funde Ricke H. 23 47 Wiesbaden Franz Steiner 1969
32. Hannig R. Grosses Handwörterbuch Deutsch—Ägyptisch: (2800–950 v. Chr.) Mainz am Rhein Philipp von Zabern 2000
33. Hassan S. Excavations at Gîza. 1930–1931 Cairo Government Press 1936
34. Helck W."“Gedanken zum Mord an König Teti”" Essays in Egyptology in honor of Hans Goedicke Bryan B.M., Lorton D. 103 112 San Antonio Van Siclen Books 1994
35. Hornung E., Krauss R., Warburton D.A. Ancient Egyptian Chronology HdO i/83 Leiden Brill 2006
36. Junker H. Der Friedhof südlich der Cheopspyramide Gîza x Wien Rohrer 1951
37. Junker H. Die Mastabas der IV. Dynastie auf dem Westfriedhof Gîza i Wien Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky 1929
38. Junker H. Der Ostabschnitt des Westfriedhofs Gîza viii Wien Rohrer 1947
39. Kanawati N."“A new ḥ3t/rnpt-zp for Teti and its implication for Old Kingdom Chronology”" gm Vol 177 2000 25 31
40. Krauss R."“Egyptian Sirius/Sothic Dates and the Question of the Sothis-Based Lunar Calendar”" Ancient Egyptian Chronology Hornung E., Krauss R., Warburton D.A. 439 457 HdO i/83 Leiden Brill 2006 [Crossref]
41. Krauss R."“Lunar Dates”" Ancient Egyptian Chronology Hornung E., Krauss R., Warburton D.A. 395 431 HdO i/83 Leiden Brill 2006 [Crossref]
42. Krauss R. Sothis- und Monddaten: Studien zur astronomischen und technischen Chronologie Altägyptens Hildesheim Gerstenberg Verlag 1985
43. Krauss R."“Wenn und aber: Das Wag-Fest und die Chronologie des Alten Reiches”" gm Vol 162 1998 53 64
44. Kuhlmann K.P."“The ‘Oasis Bypath’ or The Issue of Desert Trade in Pharaonic Times”" Tides of the Desert—Gezeiten der Wüste Jennerstrasse 8 125 170 Köln Heinrich Barth-Institut 2002
45. Leclant J."“Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1960–1961: I. Fouilles en Égypte”" OrientaliaVol 31 1962 197 222
46. Leclant J."“Recherches archéologiques à Tomâs en 1961 et 1964”" bsfé Vol 42 1965 6 11
47. Luft U. Die chronologische Fixierung des ägyptischen Mittleren Reiches nach dem Tempelarchiv von Illahun Wien Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 1992
48. Luft U."“The Date of the Wagy Feast: Considerations on the Chronology of the Old Kingdom”" Revolutions in Time: Studies in Ancient Egyptian Calendars Spalinger A. 39 43 San Antonio Van Siclen Books 1994
49. Moussa A.M., Altenmüller H. The Tomb of Nefer and Ka-hay Mainz am Rhein Philipp von Zabern 1971
50. Nolan J.F."“Cattle, Kings and Priests: Phyle Rotations and Old Kingdom Civil Dates”" Towards a New History for the Egyptian Old Kingdom: Perspectives on the Pyramid Age Der Manuelian P., Schneider T. 337 365 Leiden Brill 2015 [Crossref]
51. Nolan J.F."“The Original Lunar Calendar and Cattle Counts in Old Kingdom Egypt”" Basel Egyptology Prize I Bickel S., Loprieno A. 75 98 Aegyptiaca Helvetica 17 Basel Schwabe & CO AG 2003
52. Parker R.A. The Calendars of Ancient Egypt saoc 26 Chicago The University of Chicago Press 1950
53. Petrie W.M.F. A History of Egypt London History and Mysteries of Man 1991
54. Posener-Kriéger P. Les archives du temple funéraire de Néferirkarê-Kakaï Cairo IFAO 1976
55. Posener-Kriéger P."“Les papyrus de Gébélein. Remarques préliminaires”" RdÉVol 27 1975 211 221
56. Posener-Kriéger P."“Le prix des étoffes”" Festschrift Elmar Edel 12. März 1979 Görg M., Pusch E., Wuckelt A., Seyfried K.-J. 318 331 ÄAT 1 Bamberg Görg 1979
57. Posener-Kriéger P., de Cenival J.L. The Abu Sir Papyri Hieratic Papyri in the British Museum. Fifth Series London British Museum Press 1968
58. Posener-Kriéger P., Verner M., Vymazalová H. The Pyramid Complex of Raneferef: The Papyrus Archive Abusir x Prague Czech Institute of Egyptology 2006
59. Ricke H."“Erster Grabungsbericht über das Sonnenheiligtum des Königs Userkaf bei Abusir”" asaé Vol 57 1956 75 82
60. Ricke H."“Zweiter Grabungsbericht über das Sonnenheiligtum des Königs Userkaf bei Abusir”" asaé Vol 57 1956 305 316
61. Saad Z.Y. Royal Excavations at Saqqara and Helwan (1941–1945) asaÉ Supplement 3 Cairo IFAO 1947
62. Schäfer H. Ein Bruchstück altägyptischer Annalen Berlin Reimer 1902
63. Sethe K. Urkunden des ägyptischen Altertums, Band 1: Urkunden des Alten Reiches Leipzig Hinrichs 1933
64. Shaw I. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt Oxford Oxford University Press 2000
65. Smith W.S."“Inscriptional Evidence for the History of the Fourth Dynasty”" jnes Vol 11 1952 113 128
66. Spalinger A."“Dated Texts of the Old Kingdom”" säk Vol 21 1994 275 320
67. Spence K."“Ancient Egyptian chronology and the astronomical orientation of pyramids”" NatureVol 408 2000 320 324 [Crossref]
68. Tallet P. Les papyrus de la mer rouge I. Le «Journal de Merer» Cairo IFAO 2017
69. Valloggia M."“La descenderie de la pyramide de Radjedef à Abu Rawash”" Études sur l’Ancien Empire et la nécropole de Saqqâra dédiées à Jean-Philippe Lauer Berger C., Mathieu B. 417 428 Montpellier Université Paul-Valéry 1997
70. Vanderkerckhove H., Müller-Wollermann R. Die Felsinschriften des Wadi Hilâl. 1. Text Elkab vi Brepols Turnhout 2001
71. Verner M."“Archaeological Remarks on the 4th and 5th Dynasty Chronology”" Archiv OrientálníVol 69 2001 363 418
72. Verner M. Baugraffiti der Ptahschepses-Mastaba Abusir ii Prague Universitas Carolina Pragensis 1992
73. Verner M. The Pyramid Complex of Khentkaus Abusir iii Prague Universitas Carolina Pragensis 1995
74. Verner M."“The system of dating in the Old Kingdom”" Chronology and archaeology in ancient Egypt (the third millennium B.C.) Vymazalová H., Bárta M. 23 43 Prague Czech Institute of Egyptology 2008
75. Verner M., Callender V.G. Djedkare’s Family Cemetery Abusir vi Prague Czech Institute of Egyptology 2002
76. Verner M., Bárta M., Benešovská H., Callender V.G., Kočár P., Krejčí J. The Pyramid Complex of Raneferef: The Archaeology Abusir ix Prague Czech Institute of Egyptology 2006
77. Vymazalová H., Bárta M. Chronology and archaeology in ancient Egypt (the third millennium B.C.) Prague Czech Institute of Egyptology 2008
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/18741665-12340035
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/18741665-12340035
2017-11-17
2018-09-23

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
    Journal of Egyptian History — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation