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FN11 The fact that Darvish Qāsem had a prominent position at the Aq Qoyunlu court is supported by the Rashahāt-e ʿayn al-hayāt, a hagiographical work, completed by Fakhr al-Din ʿAli b. al-Hoseyn al-Vaʿez Kāshefi (al-Safi) in 1503-04, devoted to the sheikhs of the Khvājagān-cum-Naqshbandi tariqat, notably Khvāja ʿObaydallāh b. Mahmud Ahrār (d. 1490). Darvish Qāsem, the source notes, was among a trio of Aq Qoyunlu dignitaries, described as Uzun Hasan’s dearest boon-companions (aqrab-e nodamā’), assigned to greet Jāmi upon his arrival at Tabriz in 1473 (Kāshefi, I, 263).
FN22 Evidence that Darvish Qāsem remained special envoy to the Ottoman sultan even after the death of Uzun Hasan, during the tumultuous reign of Yaʿqub’s elder uterine brother, Soltān Khalil (r. 1478), can be found in an letter Soltān Khalil addressed to an Ottoman governor, which, in addition to its peaceful overtures, notes that Darvish Qāsem, a favorite at the Ottoman court, was a “trusted pillar of the [Aq Qoyunlu] state.” See the edited letter in Fekete, 225-28.
FN33 On the construction, functions, and demolition of the Nasriya complex, see Melville 1981, 171.
FN44 Specifically, ʿAbd al-Ghaffār Tabātabā’i (d. ca. 1490), a disciple of the Horufi poet Shāh Qāsem Anvār (d. 1433-34); Badr al-Din Ahmad Lāla’i (d. 1506), founder of the Lāla’i sub-branch of the Kobrāviya; and Shāh Naʿim al-Din Neʿmatallāh II (d. ca. 1501), the great-great-grandson of Shāh Neʿmatallāh Nur al-Din b. ʿAbdallāh Vāli (d. 1431), eponym of the Neʿmatallāhi tariqat.
FN55 It is (only) in the Rowzāt al-jenān, for example, that we get an indication that Yaʿqub made frequent visits to the Khalvati hermitage of Dada ʿOmar Rowshāni (Karbalāʾi, I, 602).
FN66 On the likelihood that the members of the Naqshbandi and Khalvati tariqats were embroiled in a competition for new disciples, at least in the Timurid domains, see DeWeese, 258-59, 264-65.
FN77 For an overview of Sonʿallāh’s religious activities, including those carried out by his successors (khalifas) in the wake of the Safavid conquest of Tabriz by Shah Ismāʿil I (d. 1524) and the Qizilbāsh in 1501, see Algar 2003, 13-15.
FN88 Another Persian source would be Khvāndamir, IV, 609. See also Sajjadi, 186-89.
FN99 The extent of their rapport, including Sonʿallāh’s appointment as imam of the madrasa administered by Jāmi, was noted first by Algar 2003, 13.
FN1010 Namely, Yaʿqub’s overseer of religious offices and endowments (sadr) and chief magistrate (qāzi al-qozāt; qāzi al-ʿaskar), Safi al-Din b. Shokrallāh ʿIsā Sāvaji (d. 1491), and his cousin, head of the chancery (parvanachi), deputy of the sultan (amir-e divān) and member (moqarrab) of Yaʿqub’s royal household, Najm al-Din Masʿud Sāvaji (d. ca. 1493), both of whom exchanged letters of correspondence and poetry with Jāmi (Urunbāyef and Rahmānof, 286-87, letters 426-28; 311-12, letters 22, 23).
FN1111 In addition to Shahidi Qomi, Jāmi supervised, at minimum, the initiation of Rāzi al-Din ʿAbd al-Ghafur Lāri (d. 1506), author of Takmela-ye Nafahāt al-ons, a biography of Jāmi appended to his Nafahāt al-ons men hazarāt al-qods, and his own son, Ziā’ al-Din Yusof (d. 1513), into the Naqshbandi tariqat (Algar 2003, 42 n. 95). On the likelihood that Jāmi initiated others, see Algar 2008, 477a.
FN1212 It must be acknowledged that it is unclear if Khonji joined the Jahriya before Yaʿqub’s death in 1490, and that Khonji Esfahāni was probably introduced to Sufism by Pir Jamāl (al-Din al-Luri) Ārdestāni (d. 1474-75), leader of the Jamāliya sub-branch of the Sohravardi tariqat (Khonji 1966, 13).
FN1313 The mystical concept of rābeta (also, rābeta-ye shaykh), although later associated with the Naqsbhandiya, was first mentioned by Najm al-Din Kobrā (d. 1221) in his Favā’eh al-jamāl va favāteh al-jalāl, and by Shehāb al-Din Abu Hafs ʿOmar al-Sohravardi (d. 1234) in his ʿAvāref al-maʿāref (Meier 1994, 18).
FN1414 See also Meier 1995, 7-25, as well as Abu-Manneh, 293-95; Buehler, 131-38; Chodkiewicz, 75-78; Paul 1998, 34-44.
FN1515 See, for example, the brief explication of rābeta, cited in Buehler (131), in the Sar-reshta-ye tariqa-ye Khvājagān, a treatise attributed to Jāmi on the core principles of Naqshbandi Sufism (Jāmi 1965, 15-16).
FN1616 The phrase in Arabic, which is not Koranic, is comparable to verses of the Hebrew Bible concerning Jacob (Yaʿqub), the Old Testament patriarch and Islamic prophet after whom Yaʿqub b. Uzun Hasan was presumably named, specifically Psalm 46: 7 and 46: 11: “The God of Jacob is still our refuge.”
FN1717 In addition to Uzun Hasan and Yaʿqub, Jāmi addressed personal letters to Jahānshāh Qara Qoyunlu (r. 1434-67), Soltān-Hoseyn Bāyqarā (r. 1469-1506), Mehmed II, Bāyezid II (r. 1481-1512), and Shams al-Din Lashkari Mohammad III of the Bahmanids (r. 1463-82). See Urunbāyef and Rahmānof, 239-40, letter 385; 269-70, letter 409; 271-74, letters 412, 413; 278-79, letters 417, 418; 281-82, letter 423; 281-83, letters 423, 424.