Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Achaemenid Creation and Second Isaiah

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Journal of Persianate Studies

For many years, scholars have entertained the idea that monotheism appeared in Second Isaiah as a result of Zoroastrian influence. Since the issue of monotheism is inappropriate for either the Persian or the Judaean contexts, this paper argues that a more fruitful angle to pursue the Persian context of Isaiah is through analysis of the concept of creation. This paper takes the Achaemenid creation prologues in the Old Persian inscriptions as a comparator for the use of creation in Second Isaiah, and places these two in a broader ancient Near Eastern context of creation mythology. It is argued that both share distinctive features in the way creation is presented and understood. Given the novel and similar concepts visible in both corpora, it is argued that the vision of creation and form of YHWH as creator are the earliest attested instance of “Iranian influence” on the Judaean tradition.

Affiliations: 1: University of Helsinki


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Ahn G.Religiöse Herrscherlegitimation im achämenidischen Iran: Die Voraussetzungen und die Struktur ihrer Argumentation1992LeidenActa Iranica 31
2. Albertz R.From the Exile to the Maccabees, vol. 2, A History of Israelite Teligion in the Old Testament Period1994Louisville
3. Bailey H. W.Zoroastrian Problems in the Ninth-Century Books1971rev. Ed.OxfordRatanbai Katrak Lectures
4. Balcer J. M.A Prosopographical Study of the Ancient Persians Royal and Noble c. 550–450 B.C.1993Lewiston
5. Baltzer K.Deutero-Isaiah: A Commentary on Isaiah 40–552001MinneapolisHermeneia
6. Barstad H. M.The Babylonian Captivity of the Book of Isaiah: “Exilic” Judah and the Provenance of Isaiah 40–551997Oslo
7. Bartholomae C.Altiranisches Wörterbuch1904Strassburg
8. Bergman J., Ringren H., Bernhardt K. H., Bottereck G. J. Bottereck G. J., Ringgreneds H."“ברא bārāʾ”"Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament1975Vol vol. 2Grand Rapids242249
9. Blenkinsopp J.Isaiah 40–55: a New Translation with Introduction and Commentary2002New YorkAnchor Bible 19A
10. Blenkinsopp J."“The Cosmological and Protological Language of Deutero-Isaiah”"Catholic Biblical Quarterly2011Vol 733493510
11. Boyce M.A History of Zoroastrianism: Under the Achaemenians1982Vol vol. 2LeidenHandbuch der Orientalistik viii.1.2.2A.2
12. Boyce M. Davies W. D., Finkelstein L."“Persian Religion in the Achaemenid Age”"The Cambridge History of Judaism2000Cambridge279307
13. Briant P. Daniels P. T.From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire2002Winona Lake
14. Brosius M.Women in Ancient Persia (559–331 BC)1998OxfordOxford Classical Monographs
15. Brueggemann W.Isaiah 40–661998LouisvilleWestminster Bible Companion
16. Byrne M."“‘My People Shall Know My Name’: The Divine Designations in the Book of Isaiah as a Hermeneutical Key to the Formation of the Text in its Final Form”"2006National University of Ireland Maynoothunpub. Ph.D. diss.
17. Cameron G. G."“The ‘Daiva’ Inscription of Xerxes: In Elamite”"Die Welt des Orients1954–9Vol 25–6470476
18. Carroll R. P.When Prophecy Failed: Cognitive Dissonance in the Prophetic Traditions of the Old Testament1979New York
19. Carter G. W.Zoroastrianism and Judaism1970New York1918, reprint
20. Cheung J.Etymological Dictionary of the Iranian Verb2007LeidenLeiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series 2
21. Davies P. R. Davies J., Harvey G., Watson W. G. E."“God of Cyrus, God of Israel: Some Religio-Historical Reflections on Isaiah 40–55”"Words Remembered, Texts Renewed: Essays in Honour of John F. A. Sawyer1995Sheffield207225
22. Delitzsch F. Martin J.Biblical Commentary on the Prophecies of Isaiah1881EdinburghClark’s Foreign Theological Library 4.14col. 2
23. Delitzsch F. Denney J.Biblical Commentary on the Prophecies of Isaiah1877New York2 vols
24. Elliger K.Deuterojesaja 1: Jesaja 40,1–45,71978Neukirchen-VluynBKAT 11.1
25. Garrison M. B. Potts D. T."“Royal Achaemenid Iconography”"The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran2013Oxford566597
26. Gnoli G.The Idea of Iran: An essay on its Origin1989RomeSerie Orientale Roma 62
27. Goldingay J.The Message of Isaiah 40–55: a Literary-Theological Commentary2005London
28. Granerød G."“ ‘By the Favour of Ahuramazda I am King’: On the Promulgation of a Persian Propaganda Text among Babylonians and Judaeans”"Journal for the Study of Judaism2013Vol 44455480
29. Greenfield J. C., Porten B., Yardeni A.The Bisitun Inscription of Darius the Great: Aramaic Version1982LondonCorpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum
30. Hale M."“Old Persian Word Order”"Indo-Iranian Journal1988Vol 3112740
31. Heffelfinger K. M.I am Large, I Contain Multitudes: Lyric Cohesion and Conflict in Second Isaiah2011LeidenBiblical Interpretation 105
32. Henkelman W. F. M.The Other Gods Who Are: Studies in Elamite-Iranian Acculturation Based on the Persepolis Fortification Texts2008LeidenAchaemenid History 14
33. Herrenschmidt C."“Désignation de l’empire et concepts politiques de Darius 1er d’après ses inscriptions en vieux perse”"Studia Iranica1976Vol 53365
34. Herrenschmidt C."“Les créations d’Ahuramazda”"Studia Iranica1977Vol 61758
35. Herrenschmidt C. Kellens J."“Vieux-Perse šiyāti”"La religion iranienne à l’époque achéménide1991Ghent1321
36. Herrenschmidt C. Daryaee T., Mousavi A., Rezakhani K."“Designation of the Empire and its Political Concepts of Darius I according to Old Persian Records”"Excavating an Empire: Achaemenid Persia in Longue Durée2014Costa Mesa1236
37. de Jong A. Curtis J., Simpson S."“Ahura Mazda the Creator”"The World of Achaemenid Persia: History, Art and Society in Iran and the Ancient Near East2010London8590
38. Kellens J. de Fouchécour C.-H., Gignoux P."“Ahura Mazdā n’est pas un dieu créateur”"Études irano-aryennes offertes à Gilbert Lazard1989Paris21728
39. Kent R. G.Old Persian: Grammar, Texts, Lexicon19612nd edNew Haven
40. Knäpper K.Die Religion der frühen Achaimeniden in ihrem Verhältnis zum Avesta2011MunichQuellen und Forschungen zur Antiken Welt
41. Koch K. Gordon R. P."“Ugaritic Polytheism and Hebrew Monotheism in Isaiah 40–55”"The God of Israel2007Cambridge205228
42. Koole J. L. Runia A. P.Isaiah III.1/Isaiah 40–481997KampenHistorical Commentary on the Old Testament
43. Kuhrt A.The Persian Empire: a Corpus of Sources from the Achaemenid Period2009Londonsingle vol. Ed.
44. Lecoq P.Les inscriptions de la Perse achéménide: Traduit du vieux perse, de l’élamite, du babylonien et de l’araméen1997Paris
45. Lenzi A. Crouch C. L., Stökl J., Zernecke A. E."“The Curious Case of Failed Revelation in Ludlul Bēl Nēmeqi: A New Suggestion for the Poem’s Scholarly Purpose”"Mediating between Heaven and Earth2012London3666
46. Lincoln B.Religion, Empire and Torture: the Case of Achaemenian Persia with a Postscript on Abu Ghraib2007Chicago
47. Lincoln B.‘Happiness for Mankind’: Achaemenian Religion and the Imperial Project2012LeuvenActa Iranica 53
48. Lord A. B.The Singer of Tales20002nd ed.Cambridge
49. Mills L. H.Zarathuštra, Philo, the Achaemenids, and Israel1905–66Leipzig
50. Mitchell C."“A Note on the Creation Formula in Zechariah 12:1–8; Isaiah 42:5–6; and Old Persian Inscriptions”"Journal of Biblical Literature2014Vol 1332305308
51. Mitchell C. Silverman J. M., Waerzeggers C."“The Testament of Darius (DNa/DNb) and Constructions of Kings and Kingship in 1–2 Chronicles”"Political Memory in and after the Persian Empire2015Atlanta363380Ancient Near East Monographs
52. Nilsen T. D."“The Creation of Darkness and Evil (Isaiah 45:6c–7)”"Revue Biblique2008Vol 1151525
53. Nilsen T. D."“Creation in Collision? Isaiah 40–48 and Zoroastrianism, Babylonian Religion and Genesis 1”"Journal of Hebrew Scriptures2013Vol 13online
54. Otzen B. Bottereck G. J., Ringgren H."“יצר yāṣar”"Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament1990Vol vol. 6Grand Rapids257265
55. Paul S. M.Isaiah 40–66: Translation and Commentary2012Grand RapidsEerdmans Critical Commentary
56. Pompeo F. Basello G. P., Rossi A. V."“Some Syntactic and Semantic Remarks on XPl 30–31”"Dariosh Studies II: Persepolis and its Settlements: Territorial System and Ideology in the Achaemenid State2012Naples155182
57. Razmjou S., Roaf M. Kaniuth K., et al"“Temples and Sacred Places in Persepolis”"Tempel im Alten Orient2013Wiesbaden407426
58. Ringgren H. Bottereck J., Ringgren H., Fabry H.-J."“עשה ʿāśâ”"Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament2001Vol vol. 11Grand Rapids387403
59. Root M. C.The King and Kingship in Achaemenid Art: Essays on the Creation of an Iconography of Empire1979LeidenActa Iranica 19
60. Root M. C."“Imperial Ideology in the Achaemenid Persian Art: Transforming the Mesopotamian Legacy”"Bulletin of the Canadian Society for Mesopotamian Studies2000Vol 351927
61. Schmidt E. F.Persepolis III: The Royal Tombs and Other Monuments1970ChicagoOriental Institute Publications 70
62. Schmitt R.The Old Persian Inscriptions of Naqsh-i Rustam and Persepolis2000LondonCorpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum i.1.2
63. Schmitt R."“Personal Names, Iranian iii. Achaemenid Period”"Encyclopædia Iranica2005online
64. Schmitt R.Die altpersischen Inschriften der Achaimeniden: editio minor mit Deutscher Übersetzung2009Wiesbaden
65. Sharma R. S."“The Aryan Problem and the Horse”"Social Scientist1993Vol 217–8316
66. Silverman J. M. Silverman J. M."“On Cultural and Religious Influence”"A Land Like Your Own: Traditions of Israel and Their Reception2010Eugene112
67. Silverman J. M.Persepolis and Jerusalem: Iranian Influence on the Apocalyptic Hermeneutic2012LondonLibrary of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament Studies 558
68. Silverman J. M. Silverman J. M."“It’s a Craft! It’s a Cavern! It’s a Castle! Yima’s Vara, Iranian Flood Myths, and Jewish Apocalyptic Traditions”"Opening Heaven’s Floodgates: The Genesis Flood Narrative, Its Contexts and Reception2013Piscataway191230Biblical Intersections 12
69. Silverman J. M. Edelman D. V., Fitzpatrick-McKinley A., Guillaume P."“Was There an Achaemenid ‘Theology’ of Kingship?”"Religion in the Persian Period: Emerging Trends Judaisms and Other Trends2016Tübingen172196
70. Simcox C. E."“The Role of Cyrus in Deutero-Isaiah”"Journal of the American Oriental Society1937Vol 572158171
71. Sims-Williams N."“The Final Paragraph of the Tomb-Inscription of Darius I (DNb, 50–60): The Old Persian Text in the Light of the Aramaic Version”"Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies1981Vol 4417
72. Skjærvø P. O."“Achaemenid Vispašiyātiš, Sasanian Wispšād”"Studia Iranica1994Vol 2317980
73. Skjærvø P. O.An Introduction to Old Persian2002rev. and expanded edCambridgeonline
74. Skjærvø P. O. Windfuhr G."“Old Iranian: Avestan and Old Persian”"The Iranian Languages2009London43195
75. Smith M."“II Isaiah and the Persians”"Journal of the American Oriental Society1963Vol 83415421
76. Smith M."“Bible II: Persian Elements in the Bible”"Encyclopaedia Iranica1990Vol vol. 4New York200203
77. Stolper M. W. Guinan A. K., et al"“Parysatis in Babylon”"“If a Man Builds a Joyful House”: Assyriological Studies in Honor of Erle Verdun Leichty2006Leiden463472
78. Tavernier J.Iranica in the Achaemenid Period (ca. 550–330 B.C.): Lexicon of Old Iranian Proper names and Loanwords, Attested in Non-Iranian Texts2007LeuvenOrientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 158
79. Tiemeyer L.-S.For the Comfort of Zion: The Geographical and Theological Location of Isaiah 40–552011LeidenVTSup 139
80. Vallat F. Perrot J."“Darius: the Great King”"The Palace of Darius at Susa: The Great Royal Residence of Achaemenid Persia2013aLondon2952
81. Vallat F. Perrot J."“The Main Achaemenid Inscriptions of Susa”"The Palace of Darius at Susa: The Great Royal Residence of Achaemenid Persia2013bLondon281295
82. Weissbach F. H.Die Keilinschriften der Achämeniden1911LeipzigVoderasiatische Bibliotek 3
83. Westermann C. Staker D. M. G.Isaiah 40–661969PhiladelphiaOld Testament Library
84. Wüst W.Altpersische Studien: Sprach- und Kulturgeschichtliche Beiträge zum Glossar der Achämeniden-Inschriften1966Munich

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Journal of Persianate Studies — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation