Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

The Transformers

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

Continuity and Change in the European Campaigns of American Evangelists Frank Buchman and Billy Graham, 1920–1960

image of Journal of Religion in Europe

This article compares two leading American evangelists Frank Buchman and Billy Graham as to the innovations they made in the transatlantic religious regimes before and after World War II. Differences in personality, in message and audience, in religious allies, in political expectations, and the changing conditions of European Protestantism explain their successive popularity. Buchman operated in the holiness tradition, Graham in the revivalist framework. Both offered persuasive examples of personal change that enabled European Protestants to find alternatives to the established relationship between public and private religion.

Affiliations: 1: Roosevelt Study Center, Middelburg, The Netherlands,


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Anders Jarlert , The Oxford Group, Group Revivalism, and the Churches in Northern Europe, 1930–1945, with Special Reference to Scandinavia and Germany ( Lund: Lund University Press 1995).
2. de Baar Mirjam , Yme Kuiper & Hans Renders (eds.), Biografie & religie: de religieuze factor in de biografie(Amsterdam: Boom, 2011).
3. Balbier Uta , “ "Billy Graham in Berlin: German Protestantism between Americanization and Rechristianization",” Zeithistorische Forschungen/Studies in Contemporary History,Online-Ausgabe 7 (2010) H.3. Url < > accessed July 1, 2014.
4. Oliver R . Barclay, Whatever Happened to the Jesus Lane Lot?( Leicester, UK: Inter-Varsity Press, 1977).
5. Billy Graham Center Archives, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Il, USA, collection 338, box 29, file 22.
6. Boobbyer Philip ,, “ "Moral Re-Armament in Africa in the Era of Decolonization",” in Stanley Brian , ed., Missions, Nationalism and the End of Empire(Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2003), 21236.
7. Boobbyer Philip , The Spiritual Vision of Frank Buchman , ( University Park, PA: Penn State University Press, 2013).
8. Joel A . Carpenter, Revive Us Again: The Reawakening of American Fundamentalism ( New York: Oxford University Press, 1993).
9. Ellwood David , The Shock of America: Europe and the Challenge of the Century ( New York: Oxford University Press, 2012).
10. Donald M. C. "Englert, “Buchmanism or Moral Rearmament,”" Interpretation Vol 12/ 3( July 1958), 31016.
11. Falby Alison , “ "The Modern Confessional: Anglo-American Religious Groups and the Emergence of Lay Psychotherapy",” Journal of History of the Behavioral Sciences Vol 39( Summer 2003), 25167.
12. Fleisch Paul , Die Heiligungsbewegung: Von den Segenstagen in Oxford 1874 bis zur Oxford-Gruppen-Bewegung Frank Buchmans. Herausgegeben and eingeleitet von Jörg H. Ohlemacher (Giessen: Brunnen, 2003).
13. Goff Philip (ed.), Blackwell Companion to Religion in America ( Chisester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010).
14. Steward D . Govig, “Ronald Fangen and the Oxford Group Movement in Norway,”( Ph.D. dissertation, New York University, 1966).
15. Graham Billy , Just as I am: The Autobiography of Billy Graham( New York: HarperCollins, 1997).
16. Griffin Roger , Fascism, Totalitarianism, and Political Religion ( New York: Routledge, 2005).
17. Grubb Norman , Modern Viking: The Story of Abraham Vereide, Pioneer in Christian Leadership ( Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1961).
18. Fr. John A. Hardon, S.J. “ "An Evaluation of Moral Rearmament",” American Ecclesiatistical Review Vol 135( July-December 1956), 21726.
19. Hutchinson Mark ,and Wolffe John , A Short History of Global Evangelicalism ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012).
20. Harry A. Ironside, The Oxford Group Movement: Is It Scriptural?( 4th ed. 1943).
21. Kee Kevin , Revivalists: Marketing the Gospel in English Canada, 1884–1957 ( Toronto: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2006).
22. Samuel C. Kincheloe, Research Memorandum on Religion in the Depression(New York: Social Science Research Council, 1937; repr. 1972).
23. van der Kooi C. ,, van Staalduine-Sulman E. ,, and Zwiep A.W. (eds.), Evangelical theology in transition: essays under the auspices of the Center of Evangelical and Reformation Theology ( cert) ( Amsterdam: VU University Press, 2012).
24. Krabbendam Hans ,, “ "A Christian Bilderberg? The International Christian Leadership, 1948–1968",” in Krabbendam Hans ,and Verhoeven Wil (eds.), Who’s the Boss? Leadership and Democratic Culture in America ( Amsterdam: VU University Press, 2007), 18798.
25. Krabbendam Hans , “ "Zielenverbrijzelaars en zondelozen. Reacties in de Nederlandse pers op Moody, Sankey en Pearsall Smith, 1874–1878",” Documentatieblad voor de Nederlandse Kerkgeschiedenis na Vol 1800 34(May 1991), 3955.
26. The Layman With a Notebook, What is the Oxford Group?( London: Oxford University Press, 1933).
27. Lean Garth , Frank Buchman: A Life ( London: Constable, 1985).
28. Michael G . Long, Billy Graham and the Beloved Community ( New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006).
29. de Loor H.D. , Nieuw Nederland loopt van stapel. De Oxford groep in Nederland, een sociale beweging van het Interbellum ( Kampen: Kok, 1986).
30. Luttwak Edward ,, “ "Franco-German Reconciliation: the Overlooked Role of the Moral Re-Armament Movement",” in Johnston Douglas ,and Sampson Cynthia eds, Religion The Missing Dimension of Statecraft , ( New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), 3763.
31. Martin William , A Prophet with Honor: The Billy Graham Story ( New York: Morrow, 1991).
32. Marty Martin , “M.R.A.: The New Druseanism,” Christian Century(31 March 1965), 399–401.
33. Martin E. Marty , Modern American Religion. Vol. 2: The Noise of Conflict 1919–1941 ( Chicago: University of Chicago, 1991).
34. Steven P . Miller, Billy Graham and the Rise of the Republican South ( Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009).
35. Pokki Timo , America’s Preacher and His Message: Billy Graham’s View of Conversion and Sanctification(Lanham, NY: University Press of America, 1999).
36. Preston Andrew , Sword of the Spirit, Shield of Faith: Religion in American War and Diplomacy ( New York: Knopf, 2012).
37. Randall Ian , “ "Conservative Constructionist: The Early Influence of Billy Graham in Britain",” Evangelical Quarterly Vol 67. 4( 1995): 309333.
38. Ruotsila Markku , The Origins of Christian Anti-Internationalism: Conservative Evangelicals and the League of Nations ( Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 2008).
39. Sack Daniel , Moral Re-Armament: The Reinventions of an American Religious Movement ( New York: Palgrave, 2009).
40. Scott Waldron , “Double Helix: A Missionary’s Odyssey,” < July 1, 2014).
41. David P . Setran, The College ‘Y’: Student Religion in the Era of Secularization ( New York: Palgrave, 2007),
42. Taylor Charles , A Secular Age ( Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007).
43. Heinz Voigt Karl , Die Heiligungsbewegung zwischen methodistischer Kirche und landeskirchlicher Gemeinschaft: die “Triumphreise” von Robert Pearsall Smith im Jahre 1875 und ihre Auswirkungen auf die zwischenkirchlichen Beziehungen ( Wuppertal: Brockhaus, 1996).

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Journal of Religion in Europe — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation