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The Paradox of Gender among West China Missionary Collectors, 1920-1950

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During the turbulent years between the Chinese nationalist revolution of 1911 and the communist victory of 1949, a group of missionaries lived and worked in West China whose social gospel theologies led to unusual identification with Chinese. Among the regular social actors in their lives were itinerant “curio men” who, amidst the chaos of feuding warlords, gathered up the heirlooms of the deposed Manchurian aristocracy and offered these wares for sale on the quiet and orderly verandahs of the mansions inside the missionary compounds of West China Union University. Although missionary men and women often collected the same types of Chinese antiquities, these became variously specimens, fine arts, commodities and household effects because their collecting practices were framed within different cultural and gendered domains of value. The scientific and connoisseurial male-gendered collecting paradigms often bolstered the anti-imperialist Chinese nationalist modernities of the Republican state. They were therefore paradoxically at odds with female-gendered collecting paradigms that drew in part upon feminist discourses of capitalist consumerism. Coupled with residual ideals of domesticity and philanthropy, these fluid female discourses resonated with emergent Chinese New Woman modernities and inspired missionary women in creative bicultural identity projects. Résumé Durant les années turbulentes entre la révolution chinoise de 1911 et la victoire communiste de 1949, un groupe de missionnaires vécut et travailla en Chine occidentale ; leur théologie du christianisme social les amena à une identification inhabituelle avec la population chinoise. Parmi les acteurs sociaux de leurs vies se trouvaient des « vendeurs de bibelots » itinérants qui, au milieu du chaos résultant des combats entre seigneurs de guerre, réunirent le patrimoine de l’aristocratie manchoue déchue et faisaient le tour des vérandas calmes et ordonnées des maisons dans l’enceinte missionnaires de la West China Union University pour y vendre leurs marchandises. Même si missionnaires hommes et femmes collectionnaient souvent les mêmes types d’antiquités chinoises, le destin de ces biens variait, passant du statut d’échantillon à celui d’objet d’art, de marchandise ou d’objet ménager, parce que les pratiques de collection renvoyaient à des systèmes de valeur différents en fonction de la culture ou du genre. Les paradigmes masculins de collection qui répondaient à des critères scientifiques et d’amateurs éclairés mettaient souvent en avant la modernité nationaliste et anti-impérialiste chinoise de l’état républicain. Ils étaient en conséquence paradoxalement en désaccord avec les paradigmes féminins de collection qui se basaient, eux, en partie sur des discours féministes de consumérisme capitaliste. Associés à des idéaux résiduels de domesticité et de philanthropie, les discours féminins faisaient écho à la modernité émergente de la Nouvelle Femme Chinoise et ils furent une source d’inspiration pour les femmes missionnaires en quête d’un projet identitaire biculturel créatif.

1. fn111*) I am grateful to members of the many West China missionary families whose participation has been invaluable to this study. I also wish to thank Sarah Cheang, Jeff Kyong-McCain and two anonymous reviewers for Social Science and Missions for their helpful comments on an earlier version of this paper. All errors and omissions remain my own.
2. fn11) Helen Gardner, “Gathering for God: George Brown and the Christian Economy in the Collection of Artefacts”, in M. O’Hanlon and R. Welsch (eds.), Hunting the Gatherers: Ethnographic Collectors, Agents and Agency in Melanesia, 1870s – 1930s, (New York: Berghahn Books, 2000), pp. 39-41; Barbara Lawson, “Missionization, Material Culture Collecting, and Nineteenth-Century Representations in the New Hebrides (Vanuatu)”, Museum Anthropology Vol. 18 No.1, 1994, pp. 25-26.
3. fn22) Arif Dirlik, “Chinese History and the Question of Orientalism,” History and Theory, Vol. 35, No. 4, Dec. 1996, pp. 96-118.
4. fn33) Dirlik, “Chinese History and the Question of Orientalism”, pp. 97-102.
5. fn44) For a description of Social Gospel approaches and a discussion of its application among West China missionaries, see Alvyn Austin, Saving China: Canadian Missionaries in the Middle Kingdom, 1888-1959 (Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1986), pp. 87-8; Susan Rigdon, “Communism or the Kingdom: ‘Saving’ China, 1924-1949”, Social Science and Missions Vol.22 No.1, (2009), pp. 168-213.
6. fn55) Ryan Dunch, “Beyond Cultural Imperialism: Cultural Theory, Christian Missions, and Global Modernity”, History and Theory, Vol. 41, No. 3, (October 2002), p.315.
7. fn66) Margaret Finnegan, Selling Suffrage: Consumer Culture and Votes for Women (New York: Columbia University Press, 1999), pp. 8-9.
8. fn77) Margo Gewurtz, “Looking for Jean Dow: Narratives of Women and Missionary Medicine in Modern China,” in A.B. Shteir and B. Lightman (eds.), Figuring It Out: Science, Gender, and Visual Culture (Hanover, New Hampshire: Dartmouth College Press, 2006), pp. 267-88.
9. fn88) Rev. W.J. Mortimore, Chengdu, to Rev. J.H. Arnup, Toronto, 4 February, 1927. Records relating to West China, United Church Archives, Acc. No. 83.047C, Box 1-27.
10. fn99) Access to these sources has influenced my research questions and theoretical approaches. Family collections and oral narratives yield quite different information and perspectives than I found in museums and archives. Starting from museum records, for example, one would not know the extent of missionary women’s collecting because the donor files list only the missionary men or the missionaries’ sons and daughters. For a similar case in which the photographic record was crucial to recovering the biography of a missionary, see Gewurtz, “Looking for Jean Dow”.
11. fn1010) For a discussion of the exclusion of modified and modernized Native American heritage items from ethnology and fine art museum collections, see Ruth Phillips, Trading Identities: The Souvenir in Native North American Art from the Northeast, 1700-1900 (Seattle, London, Montreal and Kingston: University of Washington Press and McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1998), pp. 56-65.
12. fn1111) John Munro, Beyond the Moon Gate: A China Odyssey, 1938-1950, Adapted from the Diaries of Margaret Outerbridge (Toronto: Douglas and McIntyre, 1990), p.121; William Willmott interview.
13. fn1212) Susan Rigdon, “Communism or the Kingdom”; Jeff Kyong-McCain, “Making Chengdu ‘The Kingdom of God as Jesus Conceived It’: The Urban Work of West China Union University’s Sociology Department”, Social Science and Missions Vol.23 No.2 (2010), pp. 165-9.
14. fn1313) Jeanne Cannizo, “Gathering Souls and Objects: Missionary Collections,” in T. Barringer and T. Flynn (eds.), Colonialism and the Object: Empire, Material Culture and the Museum (New York: Routledge, 1998), p.163.
15. fn1414) Peter Stursberg, The Golden Hope: Christians in China (Toronto, The United Church Publishing House, 1987), p.85.
16. fn1515) Carol Breckenridge, “The Aesthetics and Politics of Colonial Collecting: India at Worlds Fairs”, Comparative Studies in Society and History Vol.31, (1989), pp. 195-217; Richard Eves, “Dr. Brown’s Study: Methodist Missionaries and the Collection of Material Culture in the Pacific”, Museum Anthropology Vol.24, No. 1, (2000), pp. 26-41; Susanne Kűchler, “Sacrificial Economy and Its Objects: Rethinking Colonial Collecting in Oceania”, Journal of Material Culture Vol.2, No. 1, (1997), pp. 39-60; Nicholas Thomas, “Material Culture and Colonial Power in Fiji: Ethnological Collecting and the Establishment of Colonial Rule in Fiji”, Man, New Series, Vol.24, No. 1, (March 1989), pp. 41-56; N. Thomas, Entangled Objects: Exchange, Material Culture, and Colonialism in the Pacific (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991.)
17. fn1616) For discussion of nationalist collecting culture, see Cory Willmott, “The Historical Praxis of Museum Anthropology: A Canada/US Comparison,” in J. Harrison and R. Darnell (eds.), Historicizing Canadian Anthropology (Vancouver: UBC Press, 2006), pp. 212-25; and Raymond Fogelson, “Nationalism and the Americanist Tradition,” in L. Phillips Valentine and R. Darnell (eds.), Theorizing the Americanist Tradition (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999), pp. 75-83; Curtis Hinsley, “Collecting Cultures and Cultures of Collecting: The Lure of the American Southwest, 1880-1915”, Museum Anthropology Vol. 16, No. 1, (1992), pp. 12-20. For a discussion of nationalism and museum representations, see Christopher Steiner, “Museums and the Politics of Nationalism”, Museum Anthropology Vol.19, No.2, (1995), pp. 3-6.
18. fn1717) Jeff Kyong-McClain and Geng Jing, “David Crockett Graham in Chinese Intellectual History: Foreigner as Nation Builder”, in S. Harrell (ed.), Explorers and Scientists in China’s Borderlands, 1880-195 (Seattle: Washington University Press, 2011), pp. 211-39.
19. fn1818) Willmott, “The Historical Praxis of Museum Anthropology,” p.215.
20. fn1919) Willmott, “The Historical Praxis of Museum Anthropology,” pp. 214-5.
21. fn2020) Orvar Löfgren, “Materializing the Nation in Sweden and America,” Ethnos Vol. 58, Nos. 3-4, (1993), pp. 161-96.
22. fn2121) Nicholas Thomas, Colonialism’s Culture: Anthropology, Travel and Government (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994), p.2.
23. fn2222) The concept of “possessive individualism” comes from Crawford B. McPherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1962.) For a discussion of this concept applied to collecting cultures, see James Clifford, The Predicament of Culture: Twentieth Century Ethnography, Literature and Art (Cambridge, MS: Harvard University Press, 1988), p.217; and Richard Handler, “On Having Culture: Nationalism and the Preservation of Quebec’s Patrimoine,” in G. Stocking (ed.), Objects and Others (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. 192-217.
24. fn2323) Judith Green, “’Curiosity,’ ‘Art,’ and ‘Ethnography’ in the Chinese Collections of John Henry Gray,” in A. Shelton (ed.), Collectors: Individuals and Institutions (London: The Horniman Museum and Gardens, 2001), pp. 111-28.
25. fn2424) Davidson quoted in Nicky Levell, “The Translation of Objects: R. and M. Davidson and the Friends’ Foreign Mission Association, China, 1890-1894”, in A. Shelton (ed.), Collectors: Individuals and Institutions (London: The Horniman Museum and Gardens, 2001), p.129.
26. fn2525) Alvyn Austin, China’s Millions: The China Inland Mission and Late Qing Society ( Grand Rapids, MI, William B. Eerdman’s Pub., 2007), pp. 1-2; Nat Brandt, Massacre in Shansi (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1994), p.65; Jean Comaroff, “The Empire’s Old Clothes: Fashioning the Colonial Subject”, in D. Howes (ed.), Cross-Cultural Consumption: Global Markets, Local Realities (New York: Routledge, 1996), pp. 19-38; Stursberg, The Golden Hope, p.84.
27. fn2626) Carol C. Chin, “Beneficent Imperialists: American Women Missionaries in China at the Turn of the Twentieth Century, Diplomatic History Vol.27, No.3, (2003), pp. 348-9.
28. fn2727) Austin, China’s Millions, pp. 1-2, 67-8, 121-3, 127, 233-4.
29. fn2828) Austin, China’s Millions, pp. 67-8, 127; Brandt, Massacre in Shansi, p.65; Stursberg, The Golden Hope, p.85.
30. fn2929) Both episodes are illustrated with photographs and quotations from letters; in, Elizabeth Roberts Lutley Leach, Bessie: The Life of Elizabeth Roberts Lutley, self-published booklet, 2008, pp. 14-15, 25. Also see the dozens of photographs of China Inland Missionary Society missionaries in Chinese dress in Marshall Broomhall, Martyred Missionaries of the China Inland Mission with a record of the Perils and Sufferings of Some Who Escaped (London, Morgan and Scott), 1901.
31. fn3030) Levell, “The Translation of Objects”, p.132.
32. fn3131) Nicky Levell, “Illustration Evolution: Alfred Cort Haddon and the Horniman Museum, 1901-1915”, in A. Shelton (ed.), Collectors: Individuals and Institutions (London: Horniman Museum and Gardens, 2001), pp. 253-78.
33. fn3232) Nicky Levell, “Illustration Evolution”, pp. 253-78.
34. fn3333) Sally K. May, Collecting Cultures: Myth, Politics, and Collaboration in the 1949 Arnhem Land Expedition (New York: Alta Mira Press, 2010), p.22.
35. fn3434) Stursberg, The Golden Hope, p.136; Lewis Walmsley, Bishop in Honan: Mission and Museum in the Life of William C. White (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1974.)
36. fn3535) Stursberg, The Golden Hope, p.137.
37. fn3636) Linfu Dong, “Finding God in Ancient China: James Mellon Menzies, Sinology, and Mission Politics,” in A. Austin and J. Scott (eds.), Canadian Missionaries, Indigenous Peoples: Representing Religion at Home and Abroad (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2005), p.295.
38. fn3737) Dong, “Finding God in Ancient China”, p.290-1, 295-7; Stursberg, The Golden Hope, p.138-9, 165. For a more detailed discussion of Menzie see Linfu Dong, Cross Culture and Faith: The Life and Work of James Mellon Menzies (Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 2005.)
39. fn3838) Lovat Dickson, The Museum Makers: The Story of the Royal Ontario Museum (Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum, 1986), p.78
40. fn3939) Dickson, The Museum Makers, p. 75.
41. fn4040) Dickson, The Museum Makers, pp. 74-85; Walmsley, Bishop in Honan, pp. 140-44; Stursberg, The Golden Hope, pp. 92-5.
42. fn4141) Lawson, “Missonization, Material Culture Collecting”; Paula Rubel and Abraham Rosman, “George Brown, Pioneer Missionary and Collector,” Museum Anthropology, Vol. 20, No. 1, (1996), p.63; Eric Venbrux, “On the Pre-Museum History of Baldwin Spencer’s Collection of Tiwi Artefacts”, in M. Bouquet (ed.), Academic Anthropology and the Museum (New York: Berghahn, 2001), pp. 55-74.
43. fn4242) Stursberg, The Golden Hope, p.92; Austin, Saving China, p.225.
44. fn4343) Sarah Cheang, “Dragons in the Drawing Room: Chinese Embroideries in British Homes, 1860-1949,” Textile History 39(2), (November 2008), pp. 223-49; Sarah Cheang, “Selling China: Class, Gender and Orientalism at the Department Store”, Journal of Design History Vol. 20, No. 1, (2007), pp. 1-16.
45. fn4444) W. Willmott and William Skinner interviews; Transcript of “Interview with Mr. L. E. Willmott,” August 15, 1974, p.1, MOA-UBC Kilborn Collection Accession File 37. Also see Munro, Beyond the Moon Gate, pp. 22, 220.
46. fn4545) Photograph with caption, “A gift of love from Kwang Da-niang” (Willmott Family Papers); Donald Willmott interview.
47. fn4646) Margaret T. Simkin, Letters from Szechwan, 1923-1944 (Burnsville, NC, Friend in the Orient Committee, Pacific Yearly Meeting of Friends, 1978), pp. 18-19, 28; Elizabeth Willmott, ed., “Dearest Mother” (Willmott Family Papers); D. Willmott and W. Willmott interviews. Although missionary men may also have had this motivation at times, I have not come across any evidence of it, so I cannot assume one way or the other.
48. fn4747) Emily N. Gentry, China Memories, 1924-1938: The Max Gentry Family in West China (self-published booklet, 2009), p.20.
49. fn4848) Brockman Brace, “Tu Fu – A Szechwuan Poet,” in B. Brace (ed.), Canadian School in West China (Toronto: Canadian School Alumni Association, 1974), pp. 280-4; Dryden L. Phelps, and M. Katherine Willmott (trans. and eds.), Pilgrimage in Poetry to Mount Omei (Hong Kong: Cosmos Books Ltd., 1982.)
50. fn4949) Katherine Hockin (Chengdu) to “People” (location unkown), Oct. 11th, 1949, United Church of Canada Woman’s Missionary Society fonds, Acc. 1983.058C, Box 66-2, UCCA; Munro, Beyond the Moon Gate, p.200.
51. fn5050) Russell Belk and Melanie Wallendorf, “Of mice and men: gender identity in collecting”, in Susan Pearce (ed.), Interpreting Objects and Collections (London: Routledge, 1994), p.240.
52. fn5151) Sarah Cheang, “The Dogs of Fo: Gender, Identity and Collecting”, in A. Shelton (ed.), Collectors: Expressions of Self and Other (London: The Horniman Museum and Gardens, 2001), p.56.
53. fn5252) Levell, “The Translation of Objects”, p.134, 142-5.
54. fn5353) Craig Clunas, “Oriental Antiquities/Far Eastern Art,” in H. Morphy and M. Perkins (eds.), The Anthropology of Art: A Reader (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2006), p.188-9.
55. fn5454) Cheang, “Dragons in the Drawing Room”; Cheang, “Selling China”; Erika Rappaport, “Imperial Possessions, Cultural Histories, and the Material Turn: Response,” Victorian Studies Vol. 50, No. 2, (2008), pp. 289-91.
56. fn5555) Nicolette Makovicky, “Closet and Cabinet: Clutter as Cosmology,” Home Cultures (November 2007) Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 287-9.
57. fn5656) Cheang, “Selling China.”
58. fn5757) Eula C. Lapp, China Was My University: The Life of Hulda May Carscallen (Agincourt, Ontario: Generation Press, 1980), pp. 40-1; Munro, Beyond the Moon Gate, p.69; D. Willmott interview.
59. fn5858) Finnegan, Selling Suffrage, pp. 8-9.
60. fn5959) Ellen J. Laing, Selling Happiness: Calendar Posters and Visual Culture in Early Twentieth-Century Shanghai (Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press, 2004.)
61. fn6060) Clifford, The Predicament of Culture, p.217; Clunas, “Oriental Antiquities,” p.187.
62. fn6161) Celia Lury, Prosthetic Culture: Photography, Memory and Identity (London and New York: Routledge, 1998.)
63. fn6262) Susan Pearce, On Collecting: An Investigation into Collecting in the European Tradition (London and New York: Routledge, 1995), p.222.
64. fn6363) Pearce, On Collecting, p.210.
65. fn6464) Levell, “The Translation of Objects,” p.131.
66. fn6565) Dru C. Gladney, “Representing Nationality in China: Refiguring Majority/Minority Identities”, The Journal of Asian Studies Vol.53 No.1, 1994, p.93; also see Brackette Williams, “A Class Act: Anthropology and the Race to Nation Across Ethnic Terrain”, Annual Review of Anthropology Vol. 18, (1989), p.439.
67. fn6666) Kyong-McClain and Geng Jing, “David Crockett Graham in Chinese Intellectual History”. Also see: Ming-ke Wang, “From the Qiang Barbarians to the Qiang Nationality: The Making of a New Chinese Boundary”, in S. Huang and C. Hsu (eds.), Imagining China: Regional Division and National Unity, Nanking, Taiwan: Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica, 1999: origins/pages/barbarbook4.htm (accessed March 8th, 2011).
68. fn6767) See for example, D. C. Graham, The Customs and Religion of the Ch’iang (Washington: Smithsonian Institution, December, 1958.)
69. fn6868) D. C. Graham, “An Excavation and a Discovery”, West China Missionary News, (September 1938), pp. 320-1 (Willmott Family Papers).
70. fn6969) Joseph Beech, “University Beginnings,” in B. Brace (ed.), Canadian School in West China, Toronto: Canadian School Alumni Association, 1974, pp. 19; D. Willmott, personal communication.
71. fn7070) D.S. Dye Accession Files, Denison Museum; Dye, Daniel Sheets, A Grammar of Chinese Lattice, Cambridge, MS: Harvard University Press, 1937; Munro, Beyond the Moon Gate, p.27.
72. fn7171) Carl Schuster Papers, “China 1935 Travel Notes”, Field Museum of Natural History (FMNH), Acc. 2724.
73. fn7272) Carl Schuster Papers, “China 1935 Travel Notes”; Schuster, Carl, Chinese Peasant Embroideries, Dissertation, U. of Vienna, 1934, pp. Preface 5,11, FMNH Acc. 2724.
74. fn7373) Daniel Dye’s artifact collection is mainly housed at the Denison Museum, but he also deposited papers and photographs at Yale University Divinity School.
75. fn7474) D.S. Dye Accession Files, Denison Museum.
76. fn7575) Sally Price, “Provenance and Pedigrees: The Western Appropriation of Non-Western Art”, in D.Whitten and N. Whitten (eds.), Imagery and Creativity: Ethnoaesthetics in Art Worlds in the Americas (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1993), p.58.
77. fn7676) Phillips, Trading Identities, p.74.
78. fn7777) For example, in 1982 the International Chinese Snuff Bottle Society had six hundred members, presumably all or mostly collectors of snuff bottles. John Gilmore Ford, “Edward Choate O’Dell: 1901-1982: A Memoir”, in J. Ford (ed.), Chinese Snuff Bottles: The Edward Choate O’Dell Collection (Baltimore, MD: The International Chinese Snuff Bottle Society, 1982), p.17.
79. fn7878) Lewis Walmsley, Wang Wei, The Poet Painter (Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle and Co., 1968.)
80. fn7979) Informal interviews with Omar Walmsley, Marion Walker, David Walmsley and Steven Walmsley.
81. fn8080) Someone, possibly Daniel Dye or David Graham, was collecting them for the WCUU Museum (Figure 2).
82. fn8181) Leslie Kilborn to Audrey Hawthorn, Nov. 21st, 1960, MOA-UBC Kilborn Collection Accession File 37.
83. fn8282) Leslie Earl Willmott interview, MOA-UBC transcript.
84. fn8383) France Lord, “The Silent Eloquence of Things: The Missionary Collections and Exhibitions of the Society of Jesus in Quebec, 1843-1946”, in A. Austin and J. Scott (eds.), Canadian Missionaries/Indigenous Peoples: Representing Religion at Home and Abroad (Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 2005), pp. 205-34.
85. fn8484) David and Rosalie Spooner interview.
86. fn8585) Willmott Family Papers; Jack and Lou Mullett interview; W. Skinner interview.
87. fn8686) Cheang, “Selling China”, pp. 6-8.
88. fn8787) Elizabeth Johnson interview.
89. fn8888) E. Willmott, “Dearest Mother.”
90. fn8989) K. Willmott (Mt. Omei) to Carrie Dodds Geyer (Ohio), August 4th, 1924 (Willmott Family Papers).
91. fn9090) M. Willmott, W. Willmott, W. Skinner interviews.
92. fn9191) Chin, “Beneficent Imperialists”, pp. 335.
93. fn9292) Kathleen Spooner Accession File 567, MOA-UBC.
94. fn9393) Besides Willmott, West China women missionaries who collected peasant cross-stitch include Bertha Hensman (Ashmolean Museum), Bea Mullett (ROM, Textile Museum of Canada, Costume Museum of Canada and Denison Museum), Mary Collier (Human Ecology Collection, University of Alberta) and Kathleen Spooner (MOA-UBC). I have studied the Mullett, Schuster, Dye, and other Collections in museums, as well as many that remain in the private possession of missionary offspring.
95. fn9494) Munro, Beyond the Moon Gate, p.60. Regrettably, I have not the space here to provide a detailed discussion of these economic development programs.
96. fn9595) Carl Schuster Papers, “China 1935 Travel Notes”.
97. fn9696) Irma Highbaugh, “The Family Life Motif in Jenshow Embroideries”, n/d (unpublished manuscript, Willmott Family Papers); Bertha Hensman, “Symbols and Designs in Peasant Blue-Thread Embroideries of West Szechuan”, Doctoral Dissertation, University of Chicago, 1988 (Copy courtesy of Beth Lutley-Leach).
98. fn9797) Munro, Beyond the Moon Gate, pp. 72-3. Margaret Outerbridge’s diary relates that her husband designed the embroidery pattern of this cloth using conventional phoenix motifs in circulation among the embroiderers. This tablecloth is probably the phoenix motif tablecloth in the Margaret and Ralph Outerbridge Collection at MOA-UBC (Accs. 1458/19).
99. fn9898) Irma Highbaugh, “The Family Life Motif”.
100. fn10099) Jean Comaroff, “The Empire’s Old Clothes, p.34; Karen T. Hanson, “The City, Clothing Consumption, and the Search for ‘the Latest’”, in B. Lemire (ed.), The Force of Fashion in Politics and Society: Global Perspectives from Early Modern to Contemporary Times, (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2010), pp. 222-3.
101. fn101100) Chris Gosden, “On his Todd: Material Culture and Colonialism” In Hunting the Gatherers: ethnographic collectors, agents and agency in Melanesia, 1870s-1930s in Michael O’Hanlon and Robert L. Welsch, eds., (New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2000), p.233.
102. fn102101) Numerous photographs in Willmott, Walmsley/Kilborn and Mullett Family Papers show this trend. For published photographs and discussion of WCUU female scholars’ dress, see Chongjiu Lu, Zhang Liping and Yang Zhenhua, Memory of West China Union University, (Chengdu: Sichuan University Press, 2006), pp. 112-20.
103. fn103102) Martha Huang, “’A Woman Has So Many Parts to Her Body, Life is Very Hard Indeed’”, in V. Steele and J.Major (eds.), China Chic: East Meets West (New Haven and London: YaleUniversity Press, 1999), pp. 133, 138-9; Valerie Steele, and John S. Major, China Chic: East Meets West (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1999), pp. 44-5.
104. fn104103) A fur-lined silk scholar’s gown belonging to K. Willmott remains with the Willmott family. Photographs in the family’s collections show her wearing a different scholars’ gown. Kathleen Spooner had also “switched to wearing Chinese clothes” (Creet, Magda, “An embroidered memory of beloved China: Kay Spooner’s collection from Szechwan is artistically and anthropologically unique”, The Whig Standard, Oct. 3, 1979, p.7, Spooner Accs. File 567, MOA-UBC).
105. fn105104) W. Willmott interview.
106. fn106105) Cheang, “Selling China”, p.3.
107. fn107106) Cheang, “Selling China,” p.12; Richard Martin, and Harold Koda, Orientalism: Visions of the East in Western Dress (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1994), pp. 25-32; Steele and Major, China Chic, pp. 72-7.
108. fn108107) Mullett interview; also, two photographs in the Walmsley Family Papers show M. Chiang with Harrison and Bea Mullett at one of the latter’s garden parties.
109. fn109108) One of the jackets is at Denison Museum; the rest are at the Canadian Museum of Costume.
110. fn110109) Munro, Beyond the Moon Gate, p.87.

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Affiliations: 1: Department of Anthropology, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, USA


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