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The Vulval Cone and Associated Structures of Some Cyst Nematodes (Genus Heterodera)

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For more content, see Nematology.

The external and internal structures of the vulval cone of several species of cyst nematode have been re-examined. The species have been grouped according to vaginal function, as the occurrence of underbridge, bullae and vulval bridge were determined by this. The external features of the vulval areas of the groups have been homologised. They appear to be determined by the cuticle stress imposed by the function of the vagina so that few specific variations were found. The structure of the vulva and vagina of H. punctala could not be derived from that of the other species. Its similarity to the other cyst nematodes may be due to convergent evolution.

Affiliations: 1: National Vegetable Research Station, Wellesbourne, Warwick, England


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