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Biology and Pathogenicity of the Yellow Beet Cyst Nematode, a Host Race of Heterodera Trifolii On Sugar Beet in the Netherlands

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In 1975, dense populations of H. trifolii were found in fields where sugar beet had been grown on sandy soils in the southern part of the Netherlands. Host range of this yellow beet cyst nematode includes Cruciferae, Chenopodiaceae, Polygonaceae and Caryophyllaceae. In tests with Leguminosae, many juveniles invaded roots but reproduction occurred on a few species only. In hatching tests, pot and field observations, H. trifolii preferred warmer temperatures and multiplied more at the optimum temperature (25°) than H. schachtii because of its parthenogenetic reproduction. In spring at suitable temperatures (over 15°), a large proportion (70%) of juveniles hatch from the cysts when no host plant is present and this can be increased to about 90% by treating cysts with picric acid or root leachate from oil-seed rape. Under suitable conditions more generations may develop in one season. In a field trial sugar beet, cabbage and broad bean were very good hosts; turnip and vetch were good; red clover and bean were bad hosts and peas were resistant as many juveniles penetrated roots but failed to reproduce. The decrease of the nematode population was about 80 % in one year when non-host crops or resistant peas were grown. In a field trial the threshold for damage was about 5 eggs per millilitre of soil for sugar beets with yield reduced by about 35% at 50 eggs per millilitre. The nematode is associated with damage in other host crops.

Affiliations: 1: Plant Protection Service, 6700 HC Wageningen, The Netherlands; 2: Institute of Sugar Beet Research, 4600 AA Bergen op Zoom, The Netherlands


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