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Fungi and Actinomycetes Associated With Cysts of Heterodera Trifolii Goffart (Nematoda: Tylenchida) in Pasture Soils in New Zealand

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A survey of ten pastures sites in the North Island of New Zealand was conducted to identify micro-organisms colonising cysts of clover cyst nematode (Heterodera trifolii). A total of 707 isolates of fungi and actinomycetes was recovered from 488 surface-sterilised cysts plated onto water agar Ninety-three percent of cysts were colonised, with 39% containing more than one organism. The most commonly isolated organisms (and their frequency of occurrence) were species of actinomycetes (30% of cysts), Fusarium (26%), Verticillium (16%), Gliocladium (14%), Mortierella (9%), Paecilomyces (8%), Phialophora (7%), Penicillium (6%), Exophiala (5%), Acremonium (3%), Cylindrocarpon (2%) and Trichocladium (2%). Predominant species of these included Fusarium oxysporum, F. culmorum, F. solani, Verticillium chlamydosporium, Gliocladium roseum, Mortierella alpina, Paecilomyces lilacinus, an unidentified Paecilomyces sp., Exophiala pisciphila and Trichocladium opacum. Young white cysts were most commonly colonised by actinomycete species (38%), Fusarium spp. (12%) and Gliocladium spp. (10%); older (brown) cysts by actinomycete spp. (24%), Verticillium spp. (23%) and Fusarium spp. (20%), and very old (black) cysts by Fusarium spp. (41%), actinomycete spp. (31%) and Gliocladium spp. (19%). Many of the species isolated are known colonists of the roots of white clover (Trifolium repens) and some are known parasites of nematode eggs.

Affiliations: 1: New Zealand Pastoral Agriculture Research Institute Ltd., Grasslands Research Centre, Private Bag 11008, Palmerston North, New Zealand


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