Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Old Frisian skalk: A ‘Servant’ or a ‘Rogue’?

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Amsterdamer Beiträge zur älteren Germanistik

The Old Frisian word scalc, scalch, schalc is usually used in the sense of ‘servant, slave’. However, the word evidences a pejoration in meaning, being also attested in the Frisian written tradition in the sense of ‘ill-mannered person, villain, a bad guy’. The investigation of the occurrences of skalk–along with a comparison of its Germanic cognates–will allow us to draw a picture of the semantic development of this word from medieval times to the Modern stage of the Frisian language. In the author’s opinion, the negative connotation of skalk as an offensive epithet is the final result of a range of different causes, whose origin should be searched both in Frisian-Scandinavian contacts during the Viking Age and in the influence exerted by neighbouring Middle Low German and Middle Dutch.

Affiliations: 1: Università degli Studi di PalermoItalien concetta.giliberto@unipa.it

10.1163/18756719-12340069
/content/journals/10.1163/18756719-12340069
dcterms_title,pub_keyword,dcterms_description,pub_author
10
5
Loading
Loading

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/18756719-12340069
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Benecke Georg F., Müller Wilhelm, Zarncke FriedrichMittelhochdeutsches Wörterbuch1854–1866LeipzigHirzel3 vols
2. Bosworth Joseph, Toller Northcote T.An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary1882–1898OxfordOxford University Press
3. Boutkan Dirk, Siebinga Sjoerd M. Old Frisian Etymological Dictionary2005LeidenBrillonline edition10 November, 2016
4. Cleasby Richard, Vigfusson GudbrandAn Icelandic-English Dictionary19572nd edn.OxfordClarendon Presswith a Supplement by William A. Craigiealso at10 November, 2016
5. Feist SigmundVergleichendes Wörterbuch der gotischen Sprache19393rd ednLeidenBrill
6. Franck Johannes van Wijk N.Etymologisch woordenboek der Nederlandsche taal19122nd edThe HagueNijhoff
7. Hofmann Dietrich, Popkema Anne T.Altfriesisches Handwörterbuch2008HeidelbergWinter
8. Holthausen FerdinandAltsächsisches Wörterbuch1954MünsterBöhlaurepr. 1967
9. Holthausen Ferdinand Hofmann DietrichAltfriesisches Wörterbuch19252nd ed.HeidelbergWinter1985
10. Kluge Friedrich Seebold ElmarEtymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache200224th edn. rev.Berlin / New YorkDe Gruyter
11. Köbler GerhardAltniederfränkisches Wörterbuch20145th edn.2014 release at10 November, 2016
12. ten Koolman Doornkaat JanWörterbuch der ostfriesischen Sprache1879–1884NordenBraams3 vols
13. Kroonen GuusEtymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic2013Leiden / BostonBrillonline edition10 November, 2016
14. Lehmann Winfred P.A Gothic Etymological Dictionary: Based on the Third Edition of Vergleichendes Worterbuch Der Gotischen Sprache by Sigmund Feist1986LeidenBrill
15. Lexer MatthiasMittelhochdeutsches Taschenwörterbuch198637th edn.StuttgartHirzel
16. Pfeifer WolfgangEtymologisches Wörterbuch des Deutschen1989BerlinAkademie3 vols
17. Philippa Marlies, Debrabandere Frans, Quak ArendEtymologisch Woordenboek van het Nederlands2003–2009AmsterdamAmsterdam University Press4 volsonline edition10 November, 2016
18. Pokorny JuliusIndogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch1959–1969Bern / MunichFrancke2 vols
19. Richthofen Karl von.Altfriesisches Wörterbuch1840GöttingenDieterichrepr. Aalen: Scientia, 1970
20. Schiller Karl, Lübben AugustMittelniederdeutsches Wörterbuch1875–1881BremenKühtmann6 vols.
21. Schützeichel RudolfAlthochdeutsches Wörterbuch2012Vol 7durchgesehene und verbesserte AuflageBerlin / BostonDe Gruyter
22. Stürenburg Cirk HeinrichOstfriesisches Wörterbuch1857AurichKarl Otto Seyde
23. de Vries JanAltnordisches etymologisches Wörterbuch19622nd edn.LeidenBrill
24. de Vries JanNederlands Etymologisch Woordenboek19713rd edn.LeidenBrill
25. Zantema Jacobus W.Frysk wurdboek. 1: Frysk-Nederlânsk1992Drachten / LjouwertOsingaFryske Akademy 631
26. Brouwer JelleThet Autentica Riocht. Met inleiding glossen, commentaar en woordenlijst1941Assenvan Gorcum
27. Buma Wybren J. De eerste Riustringer Codex1961GroningenNijhoff
28. Buma Wybren J., Gerbenzon Pieter, Tragter-Schubert MartinaCodex Aysma. Die altfriesischen Texte1993Assen / Maastrichtvan Gorcum
29. Buma Wybren J., Ebel Wilhelm Das Rüstringer Recht1963GöttingenMusterschmidtAltfriesische Rechtsquellen 1
30. Buma Wybren J., Ebel WilhelmDas Emsiger Recht1967GöttingenVandenhoeck & RuprechtAltfriesische Rechtsquellen 3
31. Buma Wybren J., Ebel WilhelmDas Hunsingoer Recht1969GöttingenVandenhoeck & RuprechtAltfriesische Rechtsquellen 4
32. Buma Wybren J., Ebel WilhelmDas Fivelgoer Recht 1972GöttingenVandenhoeck & RuprechtAltfriesische Rechtsquellen 5
33. Buma Wybren J., Ebel WilhelmJus Municipale Frisonum I–II1977GöttingenVandenhoeck & Ruprecht12Altfriesische Rechtsquellen 6
34. The Holy Bible Translated from the Latin Vulgate1914LondonCatholic Truth SocietyDouay-Rheims versionRheims, 1582, Douay, 1609
35. Fokkema KlaasDe derde Emsinger Codex 1959The HagueNijhoffOudfriese Taal- en Rechtsbronnen 10
36. Gallée Johan"Bruchstücke einer altfriesischen Psalmenübersetzung"Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum und deutsche Literatur1888Vol 32417422
37. Gysseling Maurits"Groningse psalmglossen"Corpus van Middelnederlandse teksten. Reeks II: Literaire handschriften. Deel 1, Fragmenten1980Vol 7–8The HagueNijhoff
38. de Haan Hettema MontanusJurisprudentia Frisica of Friesche Regtkennis. Een handschrift uit de vijftiende eeuw1834–35LeeuwardenSchetsberg3 vols.
39. de Haan Hettema MontanusJurisprudentia Frisica: (codex Roorda): uit Montanus (de Haan) Hettema’s uitgave, Leeuwarden, 1834–1835, voor wat de tekst betreft overgedrukt uit het gecorrigeerde exemplaar van Dr. P. Gerbenzon1981Groningen3 vols.
40. Hoekstra JelleDe eerste en de tweede Hunsinger Codex1950The HagueNijhoffOudfriese Taal- en Rechtsbronnen 6
41. Kiernan KevinElectronic Beowulf20154th online edn.University of Kentucky / The British Library10 December 2016
42. Krapp GeorgeThe Junius Manuscript1931New York, NYColumbia University PressThe Anglo-Saxon Poetic Records: A Collective Edition, 1
43. Krapp George P.The Paris Psalter and the Meters of Boethius1932New York, NYColumbia University PressThe Anglo-Saxon Poetic Records: A Collective Edition 5
44. Langbroek Erika Bremmer R. H.Jr, van der Meer G., Vries O."Condensa atque tenebrosa. Die altfriesischen Psalmen: Neulesung und Rekonstruktion (ub Groningen Hs 404)" Aspects of Old Frisian philology (=abäg1990Vol 31/32Amsterdam / Atlanta, GARodopi255284
45. Oosterhout MeinteSnitser recesboeken 1490–1517: mei oantekeningen utjown1960AssenVan Gorcum
46. Scragg Donald G.The Battle of Maldon1981ManchesterManchester University Press
47. Sipma PieterDe eerste Emsinger Codex1943The HagueNijhoffOudfriese Taal- en Rechtsbronnen 4
48. Sjölin BoDie ‘Fivelgoer’ Handschrift1970–75The HagueNijhoffOudfriese Taal- en Rechtsbronnen 12–132 vols.
49. Streitberg WilhelmDie gotische Bibel. i. Der gotische Text und seine griechische Vorlage. Mit Einleitung, Lesarten und Quellennachweisen sowie den kleineren Denkmälern als Anhang20007. Aufl.HeidelbergWinterGermanistische Bibliothek 3mit einem Nachtrag von P. Scardigli
50. Vries Oebele, Oosterhout Meinte G.De Leeuwarder Stedstiole, 1502–1504: tekstuitgave met inleiding, aantekeningen, indices en glossarium1982GroningenFrysk Ynstitút RyksuniversiteitEstrikken 60
51. Weber Robert, et alBiblia sacra iuxta Vulgatam versionem20075th edn.StuttgartDeutsche Bibelgesellschaft
52. Wiarda Tileman D.Asegabuch, Ein Alt-friesisches Gesetzbuch der Rüstringer1805Berlin / StettinNicolai
53. Ahlsson Lars-ErikDie altfriesischen Abstraktbildugen1960UppsalaAlmqvist & Wiksell
54. Algra Nikolaas E.Die tekstfiliatie van de 17 keuren en de 24 landrechten1966GroningenFrysk Ynstitút RyksuniversiteitEstrikken 39
55. Bartlett RobertTrial by fire and water: The medieval judicial ordeal1986OxfordClarendon
56. Brady Caroline"‘Warriors’ in Beowulf: an analysis of the nominal compounds and an evaluation of the poet’s use of them"Anglo-Saxon England 1982Vol 11199246
57. Bremmer Rolf H.Jr"Frisians in Anglo-Saxon England: A Historical and Toponymical Investigation"Fryske Nammen1981Vol 34594
58. Bremmer Rolf H.JrA bibliographical guide to Old Frisian studies1992OdenseOdense University Press
59. Bremmer Rolf H.Jr Bremmer R. H.Jr, Johnston T. S. B., Vries O."Insults hurt: Verbal injury in late medieval Frisia"Approaches to Old Frisian philology (= abäg 49)1998Amsterdam / Atlanta, GARodopi89112
60. Bremmer Rolf H.JrHir is eskriven: lezen en schrijven in de Friese landen rond 13002004Hilversum / LeeuwardenVerloren / Fryske Akademy
61. Bremmer Rolf H.Jr Bremmer R. H.Jr, Laker S., Vries O."Language and contents of the Old Frisian manuscripts from Rüstringen (c.1300): A veritable mixtum compositum”" Advances in Old Frisian philology (= abäg 64)2007aAmsterdam / New York, NYRodopi2964
62. Bremmer Rolf H.Jr Keefer S. L., Bremmer R. H.Jr"Footprints of monastic instruction: A Latin Psalter with interverbal Old Frisian glosses" Signs on the edge. Space, text and margin in medieval manuscripts(= Mediaevalia Groningana N.S. 10)2007bParis / Louvain / Dudley, MAPeeters203234
63. Bremmer Rolf H.JrAn Introduction to Old Frisian: History, grammar, reader, glossary2009Amsterdam / Philadelphia, PABenjamins
64. Bremmer Rolf H.JrAn Introduction to Old Frisian. History, grammar, reader, glossary2011Amsterdam / Philadelphia, PABenjamins2009, repr.
65. Cameron Catherine M.Captives: How Stolen People Changed the World2016Lincoln, NEUniversity of Nebraska Press
66. Cronan Dennis"Poetic meanings in the Old English poetic vocabulary"English Studies2003Vol 845397425
67. Fiori AntoniaIl giuramento di innocenza nel processo canonico medievale. Storia e disciplina della ›purgatio canonica‹2013Frankfurt am MainKlostermannStudien zur europäischen Rechtsgeschichte 277
68. Gerbenzon PieterExcerpta legum. Onderzoekingen betreffende enkele Friese rechtsboeken uit de vijftiende eeuw1956Groningen / DjakartaWolters
69. Gerbenzon PieterFriese rechtstaal en vreemd recht1958GroningenWolters
70. Gerbenzon Pieter"Aantekeningen over de Jurisprudentia Frisica. Een laat- vijftiende-eeuwse Westerlauwers-Friese bewerking van de Excerpta legum"Tijdschrift voor rechtsgeschiedenis1989Vol 572167339374
71. Gerbenzon Pieter Bremmer R. H.Jr, van der Meer G., Vries O."Canon and Roman law in the so-called Codex Parisiensis"Aspects of Old Frisian Philology (= abäg 31/32)1990Amsterdam / Atlanta, GARodopi124145
72. Gabriel VolkerRechts- und Gerichtswesen im Lande Wursten vom Ausgang des Mittelalters bis ins 17. Jahrhundert.2004HamburgUniversität Hamburg Dissertation, online10 December 2016
73. Glitsch HeinrichMittelalterliche Gottesurteile1913LeipzigVoigtländer
74. de Grauwe Luc Bremmer R. H.Jr, van der Meer G., Vries O."Zur Wortwahl der altfriesischen Psalmenglossen im Umkreis der germanischen Überlieferung: Eigenständigkeit oder Tradition?"Aspects of Old Frisian Philology (= abäg 31/32)1990Amsterdam / Atlanta, GARodopi164196
75. Hamp Eric P."Germanic *skalkaz"nowele1990Vol 1699
76. Hempl George"G. skalks, nhg. Schalk, etc., G. kalkjo, on. skækja, ohg.karl, nhg. Kerl, Kegel, etc"Journal of Germanic Philology1897Vol 13342347
77. Henstra Dirk J.The evolution of the money standard in medieval Frisia: A treatise on the history of the systems of money of account in the former Frisia (c. 600–c. 1 500)2000GroningenGrafisch Centrum RUG
78. His RudolfDas Strafrecht der Friesen im Mittelalter1901LeipzigDieterich
79. Hoffman Morris B.The punisher’s brain: The evolution of judge and jury2014CambridgeCambridge University Press
80. IJssennagger Nelleke L.Friends, vassals or foes. Relations and their representations between Frisians and Scandinavians in the Viking Age, late 8th to 11th centuries. An analysis of textual and archaeological sources2010University of GroningenClassical, Medieval and Renaissance Studies, Master Thesisonline at10 December 2016
81. IJssennagger Nelleke L."Between Frankish and Viking: Frisia and Frisians in the Viking Age"Viking and Medieval Scandinavia2013Vol 96998
82. Jesch Judith Adams J., Holman K."Vikings on the European Continent in the Late Viking Age"Scandinavia and Europe 800–1350. Contact, conflict, and coexistence2004TurnhoutBrepols255268
83. Johnston Thomas S. B. Bremmer R. H.Jr, Johnston T. S. B., Vries O."Old Frisian law and the Frisian freedom ideology: Text and manuscript composition as a marketing device"Approaches to Old Frisian Philology (= abäg 49)1998Amsterdam / Atlanta, GARodopi179214
84. Johnston Thomas S. B."The Old Frisian law manuscripts and law texts"Munske20015715872001
85. Karras Ruth M.Slavery and Society in Medieval Scandinavia1988New HavenYale University Press
86. Kroeschell KarlDeutsche Rechtsgeschichte2008CologneBöhlau3 vols.
87. Lendinara Patrizia Bremmer R. H.Jr, Laker S., Vries O."Glossing the Old Frisian Psalter: Pragmatics and competence" Directions in Old Frisian (= abäg 73)2014Amsterdam / New YorkRodopi301327
88. Markey Thomas L.Frisian1981The Hague / Paris / New York, NYMouton
89. Munske Horst H.Der germanische Rechtswortschatz im Bereich der Missetaten. Philologische und sprachgeographische Untersuchungen. i. Die Terminologie der älteren westgermanischen Rechtsquellen1973BerlinDe Gruyter
90. Munske Horst H.Handbuch des Friesischen2001NiemeyerTübingen
91. Neidorf Leonard"II Æthelred and the Politics of The Battle of Maldon"The Journal of English and Germanic Philology2012Vol 1114451473
92. Pelteret David A. E.Slavery in early mediaeval England: From the reign of Alfred until the twelfth century1995Woodbridge / Suffolk / RochesterBoydell & Brewer
93. Pilarczyk Ian C."Between a rock and a hot place: The role of subjectivity and rationality in the medieval ordeal by hot iron"Anglo-America Law Review1996Vol 2587112
94. Popkema Anne T. Bremmer Rolf H.Jr, Laker Stephen, Vries Oebele"Die altfriesischen Eidesbezeichnungen"Advances in Old Frisian philology (= Amsterdamer Beiträge zur älteren Germanistik 64)2007Amsterdam / New York, NYRodopi325355
95. Roeleveld Annelies Bremmer R. H.Jr, van der Meer G., Vries O."Providentia et Plicht: The Old Frisian words in the Latin texts of the Hunsingo manuscripts" Aspects of Old Frisian Philology (= abäg 31/32)1990Amsterdam / Atlanta, GARodopi371390
96. Robinson Fred C. Rosier J. L."Lexicography and Literary Criticism: a Caveat"Philological Essays: Studies in Old and Middle English Language and Literature in Honour of Herbert Dean Meritt1970The HagueMouton99110Repr. in: Fred C. Robinson.1993. The Tomb of Beowulf and Other Essays on Old English. Oxford: Blackwell.
97. Schmidt EberhardEinführung in die Geschichte der deutschen Strafrechtspflege19953rd edn.GöttingenVandenhoeck & Ruprecht
98. Sorokina Helen Polenova G. T., Bondarets O. E."The reconstruction of one Proto-Germanic social institution" Collected articles of the IInd international linguistics conference (Taganrog, Russia)2008CambridgeCambridge Scholars6068
99. Skyum-Nielsen Niels"Nordic slavery in an international setting"Medieval Scandinavia1978–79Vol 11126148
100. Sytsema Johanneke Bremmer R. H.Jr, Laker S., Vries O."Codex Unia: Edition and reconstruction of a lost Old Frisian manuscript"Directions for Old Frisian (= abäg 73)2014Amsterdam / New York, NYRodopi497526
101. de Vries Klaas"Tafrielen út it rûge libben yn Snits om 1500 hinne"Us Wurk1972-73Vol 21-22237240In memoriam Meinte Oosterhout
102. de Vries Klaas"De recesboeken van Sneek (1490–1517)"De Vrije Fries1976Vol 564248
103. Wergeland Agnes M.Slavery in Germanic Society During the Middle Ages1916ChicagoUniversity of Chicago Press
104. Wilmanns WilhelmDeutsche Grammatik: gotisch, alt-mittel- und neuhochdeutsch. vol. 2:Wortbildung1899StrasbourgTrübner
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/18756719-12340069
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/18756719-12340069
2017-06-09
2017-12-17

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
    Amsterdamer Beiträge zur älteren Germanistik — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation