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Legal Prerequisites for a Nutrient Trading Scheme to Control Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea

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This paper explores the legal aspects of a nutrient trading scheme suggested as an effective ecosystem management of the Baltic Sea, especially for dealing with eutrophication – over-fertilisation – of the Baltic waters. The relevant sources of the law relating to the Baltic Sea are analysed, noting also features of the international emission trading scheme (iets), the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (euets) and the white certificate economic instrument. The legal prerequisites for a nutrient trading scheme are identified. Also, necessary changes in the legal framework of the Helsinki Commission/Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission (Helcom) are suggested, should the Helcom parties consider such a scheme. The present work seeks to contribute to the legal knowledge needed for more effective and adaptive ecosystem management of the Baltic Sea, or other regional seas.

Affiliations: 1: Department of Law, Stockholm University Stockholm, Sweden,


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