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The fossil record of Phasmida (Insecta: Neoptera)

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A review of the Phasmida fossil record is provided. No fossils of Timema Scudder are known. Euphasmida fossils include: Agathemera reclusa Scudder, Electrobaculum gracilis Sharov, Eophasma oregonense Sellick, Eophasma minor Sellick, Eophasmina manchesteri Sellick, Pseudoperla gracilipes Pictet, Pseudoperla lineata Pictet and various unclassified species from Grube Messel, Baltic amber, and Dominican Republic amber. The oldest documented Euphasmida fossils are 44-49 million years old; molecular clock dating underestimates the origin of the sister group Timema by at least 24 million years.

Affiliations: 1: Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602-2603, USA (, Email:


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