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Phylogenetic and biogeographical analysis of the New Zealand Helicopsyche von Siebold (Trichoptera: Helicopsychidae)

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The phylogenetic relationship between the seven known New Zealand Helicopsyche von Siebold, 1856 species is outlined. The New Zealand Helicopsyche comprises Helicopsyche albescens Tillyard, 1924, Helicopsyche poutini McFarlane, 1964, Helicopsyche howesi Tillyard, 1924, Helicopsyche zealandica Hudson, 1904, Helicopsyche haurapango Johanson, 1999, Helicopsyche torinoJohanson, 1999, and Helicopsyche cuvieri Johanson, 1999 and the cladistic analysis revealed a single most parsimonious tree, ((albescens, (poutini, howesi)), (zealandica, (haurapango, (torino, cuvieri)))). The basal species in the two species groups formed, H. zeczlandica and H. albescens, are widely distributed in both North Island and South Island, while the derived species have more restricted distribution ranges and sister clades form non-overlapping distributions. New Zealand was divided into four and five separate geographical entities based on a) distribution patterns from the Helicopsyche and primitive Lepidoptera and b) distribution patterns from the Helicopsyche alone, respectively. To map the history of Helicopsyche in New Zealand reconciliation using COMPONENT 2.0 and Dispersal-Vicariance analysis by DIVA 1.1 was applied in the search for a reduced area cladogram and ancestral areas, respectively. The results indicate that the southernmost part was part of the ancestral area, and that the division of the earliest ancestor has a minimum age of 10 million years.

Affiliations: 1: Swedish Museum of Natural History, Entomology Department, P.O. Box 50007, 104 05 Stockholm, Sweden [, Email:


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