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Revision and cladistic analysis of the spider family Hersiliidae (Arachnida, Araneae) with emphasis on Neotropical and Nearctic species

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Hersiliidae Thorell is a family of conspicuously long-legged spiders, characterized by extremely elongate posterior lateral spinnerets. To date, it includes 148 species distributed within seven genera, of which Tama Simon is the only one recorded in the Neotropical Region. Of the 23 known Tama species, 18 are exclusively Neotropical. In order to enhance the scientific knowledge on the family and its members this study presents a cladistic analysis and a taxonomic revision of the Neotropical and Nearctic hersilids. The cladistic analysis places the Neotropical and Neartic species in two separate clades, none of which are closely related to the genus Tama. Based on this result, Tama mexicana (O.P.-Cambridge) and T. forcipata (F.O.P.-Cambridge) are transferred to Neotama and three new genera are proposed to include the remaining species: Ypypuera n. gen. to include T. crucifera Vellard and T. vittata (Simon); Iviraiva n. gen. to include T. pachyura Mello-Leitão and T. argentina Mello-Leitão; and Yabisi n. gen to include T. habanensis Franganillo. Based on the taxonomic revision, eight synonymies are proposed: Tama crulsi Mello-Leitão, Tama micrura Mello-Leitão and T. occidentalis Schenkel with Ypypuera crucifera (Vellard); T. brasiliensis Piza and T. karinae Carcavallo with I. pachyura (Mello-Leitão); T. catamarcaensis Carcavallo and T. longipes Carcavallo with I. argentina (Mello-Leitão); and T. guianensis Mello-Leitão with Neotama mexicana (O.P.-Cambridge); three names are placed as nomina dubia: Tama americana (Simon), T. albigastra Mello-Leitão and T. sasaimae Mello-Leitão and four new species are described: Neotama cunhabebe, from São Paulo, Brazil, Neotama obatala, from Bahia, Brazil, Ypypuera esquisita, from Quevedo, Ecuador, and Yabisi guaba, from Pedernales, Dominican Republic. The family Hersiliidae, the genus Neotama and all three new genera, as well as all Neotropical and Nearctic species are redescribed and diagnosed and a identification key is presented.


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