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A phylogenetic analysis of the dung beetle genus Phanaeus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) based on morphological data

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image of Insect Systematics & Evolution

The genus Phanaeus (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) forms an important part of the dung beetle fauna in much of the Western Hemisphere. Here a phylogeny for Phanaeus, including 49 Phanaeus sp., and 12 outgroup taxa, is proposed. Parsimony analysis of 67 morphological characters, and one biogeographical character produced 629 equally parsimonious trees of 276 steps. Oxysternon, the putative sister taxon is nested well within the subgenus Notiophanaeus, implying that Oxysternon might ultimately need to be synonymized with Phanaeus. Species groups of Edmonds (1994) recovered as monophyletic are paleano, endymion, chalcomelas, tridens, triangularis, and quadridens. An 'unscaled' equal weighting analysis yielded 57,149 equally parsimonious trees of 372 steps. The strict consensus of these trees yielded a monophyletic Phanaeus with the inclusion of Oxysternon. Bootstrap values are relatively low and some clades are unresolved.


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