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Frena and druckknopf: a synopsis of two fore wing-to-body coupling mechanisms in Heteropterodea (Hemiptera)

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image of Insect Systematics & Evolution

Two wing-to-body fastening structures are documented using scanning electron microscopy for 20 exemplar species across the Heteropterodea and 3 species of Auchenorrhyncha. Frenae, holding devices interlocking the costal margin of the fore wing with the margin of the mesoscutellum, occur in representatives of all infraorders of Heteroptera with the exception of Gerromorpha. Frenae were also found in Cicadomorpha and Fulgoromorpha (Auchenorrhyncha), but they are absent in Coleorrhyncha. A knobshaped "druckknopf", covered with tile-like microtrichia on the mesepimeron and interlocking the hind margin of the fore wing with the mesothorax, occurs in Cimicomorpha, Leptopodomorpha and Coreidae (Pentatomomorpha) among Panheteroptera. A ridge or elevation beset with tile-like microtrichia is present in Dipsocoridae and Schizopteridae among Dipsocoromorpha, Nepomorpha and the remaining Pentatomomorpha examined among Panheteroptera, but also in a species of Cicadomorpha and Fulgoromorpha. Scenarios for the evolution of frenae and druckknopf, mapped on a recent hypothesis of higher-level relationships of Heteroptera, are discussed.


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