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Remarkable sexual dimorphism, rarity and cryptic species: a revision of the ‘aegrota species group’ of the Neotropical butterfly genus CaeruleuptychiaForster, 1964 with the description of three new species (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae)

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The ‘aegrota species group’ of the Neotropical nymphalid genus CaeruleuptychiaForster, 1964, in addition to three other superficially similar, enigmatic species in the genus, are revised. A lectotype is designated for Euptychia aegrota Butler, 1867, E. aetherialisButler, 1877stat. rev., E. heliosWeymer, 1911 and E. pilata Butler, 1867, and C. aetherialis is resurrected from its synonymy with C. aegrota. Caeruleuptychia helios caelestissimaBrévignon, 2010, syn. nov., and Magneuptychia keltoumaeBrévignon & Benmesbah, 2012, syn. nov. are both regarded as junior subjective synonyms of C. helios (Weymer, 1911), as a result of the discovery and first illustration of the female of this taxon. The female of C. aegrota is also described and illustrated for the first time, and three new species, C. trembathi Willmott, Nakahara, Hall & Neild, sp. nov., C. scripta Nakahara, Zacca & Huertas, sp. nov., and C. maryzenderae Lamas & Nakahara, sp. nov. are described and named. We analyze morphological and molecular data separately, in addition to combining morphological data with molecular data, to provide the first phylogenetic hypothesis for the taxa treated in this revision.

Affiliations: 1: McGuire Center for Lepidoptera and Biodiversity, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA ; 2: Laboratório de Estudos de Lepidoptera Neotropical, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Caixa Postal 19020, 81531–980, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil ; 3: Life Sciences Department, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, SW7 5BD, London, UK ; 4: Department of Entomology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560–0127, USA ; 5: Departamento de Entomología, Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Apartado 14–0434, Lima-14, Peru ; 6: Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA ; 7: Arthropoda Department, Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig, Adenauer Allee 160, 53113 Bonn, Germany


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