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A new genus of cynipid inquiline, Lithosaphonecrus Tang, Melika & Bozsó (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Synergini), with description of four new species from Taiwan and China

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The cynipid inquilines genus Saphonecrus is known to be a polyphyletic group with distinct lineages. One lineage is associated with Synophrus in the Western Palaearctic on section Cerris oaks. Another involves the type species of Saphonecrus, S. connatus, and represents a distinct and probably early-diverging lineage with a Palaearctic distribution on white oaks. The third main lineage is predominantly Asian, and associated with Quercus subgenus Cyclobalanopsis and Quercus section Cerris and the oak-related Fagaceae including Lithocarpus. This third lineage shows large diversity, and includes the genus Ufo, the European lineage of S. undulatus and S. haimi, and the herein described new genus, Lithosaphonecrus Tang, Melika & Bozsó, known from Taiwan and China, with four new species: L. formosanus Melika & Tang, L. dakengi Tang & Pujade-Villar, L. huisuni Tang, Bozsó & Melika and L. yunnani Tang, Bozsó & Melika. All the four described species are associated only with Lithocarpus. Descriptions, diagnoses, biology, and host associations for the new genus and species are given, as well as a key to species and cynipid inquilines genera. All taxa are supported by morphological and molecular data.

Affiliations: 1: aPlant Health and Molecular Biology Laboratory, National Food Chain Safety Office, Directorate of Plant Protection, Soil Conservation and Agri-environment, Budaörsi str. 141–145, Budapest 1118, Hungary; 2: bDepartment of Entomology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, 40227 Taiwan; 3: eUniversitat de Barcelona, Facultat de Biologia, Departament de Biologia Animal, Avenida Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona, Spain


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