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The Baltic Finnic People in the Medieval and Pre-Modern Eastern European Slave Trade

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Raids and the kidnapping of humans in East Europe together with a late medieval and pre-modern Black Sea slave trade are well known in the scholarly literature. This kind of slave trade also extended via the Volga to Caspia and Central Asia. Besides young male slaves, there was a market for small blond boys and girls in both regions, where they were expensive luxury items. Gangs from the Volga, at least, launched raids towards the north, and it is possible that the northern kidnapping raids and the transportation of prisoners from the northern forests to Novgorod were also connected with the southern slave trade.

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17. fn1717 Poso’skaya kniga po svyazyam Rossii s Nogaiskoi Ordoi (1576 g.). Podgotovka k pechati, vvedenie i kommentarii V. V. Trepavlova, (Moscow: Institut rossijskoj istorii RAN, 2003), 19–20 (l. 344ob.-345), 29 (l. 360), 48 (l. 385), 53 (L. 390), Bi-Arslan Balbekovich Kochekaev, Nogaisko-Russkie otnosheniya v XV–XVIIIvv, (Alma-Ata: Izdatel’stvo Nauka Kazakhskoi SSR, 1988), 34–37.
18. fn1818 Andaças é Viajes de Pero Tafur, 161–162, Bartholomaei de Jano ordinis Minorum, Epistola de crudelitate Turcorum. Patrologia Migne Graeca, 158, ´(Athens: Centre for Patristic Publications, 2006), col. 1063, Michalonis Litvani, fragmen primum, p. 24, Opisanie Kryma (Tartariae Descriptio) Martina Bronevskago. Zapiski Odesskago obshchestva istorii i drevnostei. Tom VI s IX litografirovannymi listami, (Odessa: n.p., 1867), 359, 362–3, Yuriy Krizhanich, “De Providentia Dei, (principium) p. 9 (= O promysle. Sochinenie togo zhe avtora kak i “Russkoe gosudarstvo v polovine XVII veka”. Svedeniya ob otkrytoi rukopisi P. Bezsonova, (Moscow: n.p., 1860), Quirini-Popławska, Włoski handel, 77–106.
19. fn1919 Quirini-Popławska, Włoski handel, 77–106, 197–223.
20. fn2020 Boris N. Zakhoder, Shirazskii kupets na povolzh’e v 1438 g. Kratkie soobshcheniya instituta vostokovedeniya AN SSSR XIV, 1955, 14–17, Audrey Burton, The Bukharans. A Dynastic, Diplomatic and Commercial History 1550–1702, (Richmond: Curzon Press, 1997), 392–399, Labib, Handelsgeschichte, 327–9, V. G. Tizengausen, Sbornik materialov, otnosyaščihsya k istorii Zolotoi Ordy. Tom I. Izvlecheniya iz sochininii arabskikh, (Saint Petersburg: n.p., 1884), (predislovie) xi – xii.
21. fn2121 Khozhenie za tri morya Afanasiya Nikitina, eds. V. P. Kozlov, L. M. Sorina, G. S. Gorevoi, L. A. Timoshina, S. N. Kisterev (Tver’: Arkhivnyi otdel Tverskoi oblasti, 2003), l.193ob-196ob (pp. 99–101), l. 218–219 (pp. 110–1).
22. fn2222 N. B. Baikova, Rol’ srednei Azii v russko-indiiskikh torgovykh svyazyakh (pervaya polovina XVI – vtoraya polovina XVIII v.), (Tashkent: Izd. FAN UzSSR, 1964), 43, V. G. Tizengausen, Pervoe russkoe posol’stovo v Herate. Zapiski vostochnago otdeleniya imperatorskago russkago arkheologicheskago obshchestva I:1 (1886): 30–31.
23. fn2323 Russko-indiiskie otnosheniya v XVII v. Sbornik dokumentov, eds. K. A. Antonova, N. M. Gol’dberg, T. D. Lavrentsova (Moscow: Izd. vostochnoi literatury – Institut vostokovedeniya AN SSSR, 1958), nr. 5, O khodu v Persidskoe Tsarstvo i iz Persidy v Turskuyu zemlyu i Indiyu i v Urmuz gde karabli prikhodyat. Soobshch. D. Ch. M. P. Pogodinym. Vremennik imperatorskogo moskovskogo obshchestva istorii i drevnostei rossiiskikh XV (1852): materialy n:o 2, pp. 1–22, Patriarshaya ili Nikonovskaya letopis’. Polnoe sobranie russkii letopisei (= PSRL) 9–13, (Moscow: AN SSSR, 1965), 7041 (1532), Introduction to Khozhenie of Kisterov, pp. 9–12, Laurence Lockhart, “European Contacts with Persia, 1350–1736” CHI 6, 377, Baikova, Rol’ srednei Azii, 44–45.
24. fn2424 The Travels of Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, 836.
25. fn2525 Génes et l’outre-mer tom. I. Les actes de Caffa du notaire Lamberto di Sambuceto 1289–1290 ed. Par Michel Balard. Documents et recherches dur l’économie des pays byzantins, islamiques at slaves et leurs relations commerciales au moyen age sous la direction de Paul Lemerle, XII, (Paris: Mouton & co, La Haye, 1973) (= AdC), 388.
26. fn2626 H. Neville Chittick, “The East Coast, Madagascar and the Indian Ocean” The Cambridge History of Africa. Volume 3 from c. 1050 to c. 1600. Edited by Roland Oliver, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977), 183–5.
27. fn2727 Early Voyages and Travels to Russia and Persia by Anthony Jenkinson and other Englishmen with some account of the first intercourse of the English with Russia and Central Asia by way of the Caspian Sea, ed. E. Delmar Morgan, member of the Hakluyt Society; and C. H. Coote of the British Museum, vol. I-II (London: The Hakluyt Socity, 1886), I, 89, 95, Ronald Ferrier, “Trade from the mid-14th century to the End of the Safavid period,” CHI 6, 428.
28. fn2828 Burton, The Bukharans, 50–51, 379–80, 429–30, 448–51.
29. fn2929 Kaziiskie dokumenty XVI veka. Tekst, perevod, ukazatel’ vstrechayushchihsya yuridicheskikh terminov i primechaniya podgotovili P. P. Fitrat i B. S. Sergeev, (Tashkent: Izdatel’stvo komiteta nauk UzSSR, 1937), nr. 15, 17, Materialy po istorii uzbekskoi, tadzhikskoi i turkmenskoi SSR. Chast’ I: Torgovlya s Moskovskim gosudarstvom i mezhdunarodnoe polozhenie Srednei Azii v XVI-XVI vv. Trudy istoriko-arkheograficheskogo instituta i instituta vostokovedeniya AN SSSR, Tom VI. Materialy po istorii narodov SSSR, vypusk 3, (Leningrad: Izdatel’stvo AN SSSR, 1933), Part II: nr. 2 (year 1623), nr. 2–9 (late 17th century) and Part III: 386–97.
30. fn3030 O khodu v Persidskoe Tsarstvo, pp. 9–11, Burton, The Bukharans, 5–6, 363, 448–51, 502–3.
31. fn3131 Kalmytskie istoriko-literaturnye pamyatniki v russkom perevode, (Ellista: Kalmytskie nauchno-issledovatel’skii institut yazyka, literatury i istorii, 1969), (Torgoutovskii taishi Shukur-Daichin i syn ego Puncuk), 53–62.
32. fn3232 Baikova, Rol’ srednej Azii, 36–39, 43–45.
33. fn3333 Rotman, Byzantine Slavery, 57–66.
34. fn3434 Brian J. Boeck, “Identity as Commodity: Tournaments of Value in the Tatar Ransom Business” Russian History – Histoire Russe 35:3–4 (2008): 259–66.
35. fn3535 Zapisnaya kniga krepostnym aktam XV-XVI vv. Yavlennym v Novgorode d’yaku D. Alayab’evu. Izdannie arkheograficheskoi kommissii. Russkaya istoricheskaya biblioteka izdavaemaya imperatorskoyu arkheograficheskoyu kommissieyu tom XVII, (Saint Petersburg: Imperatorskaya Akademiya Nauk, 1898), col. 63–64 (no. 177), col. 142–143 (no. 388) col. 165 (no. 448), Novosel’skij, Bor’ba, 436.
36. fn3636 Imhaus, Le minoranze, 35, 120–1, 157.
37. fn3737 Andrzej Dziubiński, Handel niewolnikami polskimi i ruskimi w Turcji w XVI wieku i jego organizacja. Zeszyty historyczne III (1963): 42–43.
38. fn3838 Vypisi iz kadiaskerskago sakka (kniga) 1017–1022g. hidzhry (1688/9–1613 g. Khr. let) khranyashchagosya gubernskago pravleniya. Izvestiya tavricheskoi uchenoi arkhivnoi kommissii 8 (1889): nr. 1(pp. 41–42).
39. fn3939 Early Voyages, I, 58.
40. fn4040 Iter Persicum (Georgius Tectander & Stephanus Kakasch). Kurze/doch aussführliche und wahrhafftige beschreibung der Persianischen Reiß, (Altenburg: n.p., 1610), 70.
41. fn4141 Jacobi, Nobilis Dani Friderici II. Regis Legati, Hodoeporicon Ruthenicum = Yakob Ul’fel’dt, Putechestvie v Rossiyu, eds. John Lind, Anna Khoroshkevich. Studia Historica (Moscow: Yazyki slavyanskoi kul’tury, 2002), pp. 207–8, “Vyderzhki iz dnevnika anonima i perevod”, eds. John Lind-V. A. Antonov-Natalia Ohotina Lind) in: Jacobi, p. 72, Alexander Filyushkin, Ivan the Terrible. A Military History, (London: Frontline Books, 2008), 251.
42. fn4242 Patriarshaya ili Nikonovskaya letopis’ 7064 (1556).
43. fn4343 Khozhenie, l. 205–205ob (p. 105), 217 (p. 110).
44. fn4444 The Travels of Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, 867–9.
45. fn4545 Ibid., 492.
46. fn4646 Ibid., 445.
47. fn4747 Khozhenie, l. 200 (p. 102), The Travels of Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, 478–9, 492, Baikova, Rol’ srednei Azii, 36–39, 43–45, Shmidt, Russkie polonyaniki, 31.
48. fn4848 Burton, The Bukharans, 379–80.
49. fn4949 Shmidt, Russkie polonyaniki, 30–34.
50. fn5050 A. Lokhvitskii, O plennykh po drevnemu russkomu pravu (XV, XVI, XVII veka). Izsledovanie, (Moscow: n.p., 1855), gl. I, 9–10.
51. fn5151 AdC 101, 277, 593, 697, 714, 766.
52. fn5252 Ibid. 75, 594, 708, 711, 767, 832, Gioffré, Il mercato, 17–27, 58, 175–6.
53. fn5353 AdC 75, 93, 99, 100, 101, 112, 120, 123, 189, 277, 240, 302, 388, 487, 497, 542, 579, 593, 708,711, 770.
54. fn5454 Harrison, Slaveri, 282, Gioffré, Il mercato, 31–33.
55. fn5555 Kaziiskie dokumenty, nr. 2, 6, 16, 17, 19, 21, 61, 62.
56. fn5656 AdC 112, 123, 189, 240, 285, 289, 708, 770, 94, 579, 101, 277, 593, 542.
57. fn5757 Ibid. 75, 99, 100, 120, 302, 487, 497, 93, 711.
58. fn5858 Joaquín Miret y Sans, “La esclavitud en Cataluña en los ultimos tiempos de la edad media” Revue Hispanique XLI (1917): 10, 12–14, 23, 41–43, mainly female with Moslem names, Gioffré, Il mercato, 31–33. There are in his register (pp.185–326) 16 cases of Saracenian origin white slaves. They are between 8 and 26 years old and 14 are female slaves.
59. fn5959 Quirini-Popławska, Włoski handel, 261–2, 265–7, 278–80, Imhaus, Le minoranze, 157, 394, 556, Heers, Gênes, 98–103, Gioffré, Il mercato, 185–326.
60. fn6060 Cf. below p. 000, Burton, The Bukharans, 60–61, 469–70.
61. fn6161 Leslie P. Peirce, The Imperial Harem. Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire. Studies in Middle Eastern History, (New York – Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), 31–32, 58–63, Shaun Marmon, Eunuchs and Sacred Boundaries in Islamic Society. Studies in Middle Eastern History, (New York – Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), 39, 126 (note 48), 133 (note 103).
62. fn6262 Michalonis Litvani, fragmen primum, p. 22, Andaças é Viajes de Pero Tafur, 162, Opisanie Perekopskikh i nogaiskikh tatar, cherkesov, mingrelov i gruzin, Zhana de Lyuka, monakha dominikanskago ordena (1625). Zapiski imperatorskago odesskago obshchestva istorii i drevnostei, tom XI (1879): 491.
63. fn6363 Heinrici chronicon Livoniae (ed. L. Arbusow – A. Bauer), Ausgewählte Quellen zur Deutschen Geschichte des Mittelalters, Band 24, (Würzburg: Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften, 1959), 12.6, Novgorodskaya chetvertaya letopis’. PSRL 4, (Moscow: Yazyki Russkoi kultury, 2000), 6883 (1375), Vologodsko-Permskaya letopis’. PSRL 26, (Moscow – Leningrad: Nauka, 1959), 6883 (1375), Matthias de Mechow, Chronica Polonorum. De Sigismundi regis temporibus, (Cracow: n.p., 1550), liber III, 112, Jacobi, p. 203, Imhaus, Le minoranze, 157, Quirini-Popławska, Włoski handel, 286, Verlinden, Verlinden, Ist mittelalterliche Sklaverei, 171.
64. fn6464 Opisanie Kryma (Tartariae Descriptio) Martina Bronevskago, 357, 363–4.
65. fn6565 Michalonis Litvani, fragmen primum, 22.
66. fn6666 Verlinden, Ist mittelalterliche Sklaverei, 170–3, Heers, Gênes, 135–7. Harrison, Slaveri, 271, 279–83.
67. fn6767 Michalonis Litvani, fragmen primum, p. 22.
68. fn6868 Ibid. p. 22.
69. fn6969 AdC 94, 285, 289.
70. fn7070 The Travels of Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, 595–6, Khozhenie, l. 196ob (p. 101), l. 200 (p. 102), l. 205–205ob (p. 105), 207ob (p. 106), l. 208–208ob (p. 106), the commentary text note 109, Marmon, Eunuchs, 26, 126 (note 48).
71. fn7171 Bosworth, Eunuchs III, 66, Kathryn Babayan, “Eunuchs IV. The Safavid Period” EI IX, 67, R. M. Savory, “The Safavid Administrative System” CHI 6, 355, İnalcik, The Ottoman, 79–80, 82, 86, Peirce, The Imperial Harem, 11–12, Marmon, Eunuchs, 3–6, 11–12, 39, 62, 126 (note 48), 133 (note 103).
72. fn7272 AdC 240, 770, Gioffré, Il mercato, 185–326, Harrison, Slaveri, 283, Imhaus, Le minoranze, 120–1. Asper or akça is an Osman silver coin (1.15 g), S. Faroqhi, “III. Osmanischer Bereich. Währung.” Lexikon den Mittelalters, 9 vols. (München: Lexma, 1997), 7: 1926–7.
73. fn7373 AdC 388, Chittick, The East Coast, 183–5, Heers, Gênes, 120.
74. fn7474 Ibn-Khaldūn, The Muqaddimah. An Introduction to History. Translated from the Arabic by Franz Rosenthal in three volumes. Bollingen Series XLIII, (Princeton: Princeton University Press: 1980), 3rd prefatory discussion, 152, (I: p. 172), Karl Jahn, Die Frankengeschichte des Rashid ad-Dīn. Einleitung, vollständige Übersetzung, Kommentar und 58 Texttafeln. Veröffentlichungen der iranischen Kommission, ed. Manfred Mayrhofer, Band IV. Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-historische Klasse, Denskschriften, 129. Band, (Wien: Verlag der österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1977), 50.
75. fn7575 Novgorodskaya chetvertaya letopis’, 6877 (1369), 6878 (1370), 6885 (1375), 6906 (1398), 6933 (1425), S. M. Shpilevskii, “Drevnye goroda i drugie bulgarsko-tatarskie pamyatniki v kazanskoi gubernii”, Izvestiya i uchenyya zapiski imperatorskago kazanskago universiteta God XLIV, No 4 (iyul’-avgust), 1877, 128–9, 169–7.
76. fn7676 H. G. Gimadi, Narody srednego Povolzh’ya v period gospodstva Zolotoi Ordy. Materialy po istorii Tatarii, (Kazan’: Tatgosizdat, 1948), 193–4.
77. fn7777 E.g., Ustyuzhskaya letopis’ (spisok Matsievicha), PSRL 37, (Leningrad: AN SSSR, 1982), 6954 (1446), 6970 (1462), 6976 (1468), 6977 (1469), Ustyuzhskaya letopis’ (arkhangelogorodskii letopisec), PSRL 37, (Leningrad: AN SSSR, 1982), 6963, 6970 (1462), 6976 (1469)-6979 (1472), Vologodsko-Permskaya letopis’, PSRL 26, (Moscow – Leningrad: AN SSSR, 1959), 6986 (1478).
78. fn7878 Novgorodskaya chetvertaya letopis’, 6883 (1375), Shpilevskii, Drevnye goroda, 177.
79. fn7979 Novgorodskaya pervaya letopis’ mladshego izvoda, PSRL 3, (Moscow: Yazyki Russkoi Kultury, 2000), Novgorodskaya chetvertaya letopis’, Dvinskoi letopisec (kratkaya & prostrannaya redakciya). PSRL 33, (Leningrad: AN SSSR 1977), Ustyuzhskaya letopis’ (arkhangelogorodskii letopisec & spisok Macievicha), 6906 (1398).
80. fn8080 Novgorodskaya pervaya letopis’, 6909, (1401), Ustyuzhskaya letopis’ (arkhangelogorodskii letopisec) 6925 (1417), Vologodsko-Permskaya letopis’, 6960 (1452).
81. fn8181 Novgorodskaya chetvertaya letopis’ 6883 (1375), 6885 (1377), Novgorodskaya pervaya letopis’, 6885 (1377).
82. fn8282 Dvinskoi letopisets (kratkaya, prostrannaya redaktsiya), Kholmogorodskaya letopis’, PSRL 33, Leningrad: AN SSSR, 1977), 6939 (1431).
83. fn8383 Ioasafovskaya letopis’, ed. A. A. Zimin (Moscow: AN SSSR, 1957), 131.
84. fn8484 Ioasafovskaya letopis’ 7004 (1495), Ustyuzhskaya letopis’ (arkhangelogorodskii letopisets) 7004 (1496), Jukka Korpela, Viipurin linnaläänin synty. Viipurin läänin historia II, (Helsinki: Karjalan kirjapaino, 2004), 32.
85. fn8585 Korpela, “…and they took” (in press).
86. fn8686 Ustyuzhskaya letopis’ (arkhangelogorodskii letopisets) 6979 (1471), 6994 (1486), Akty istoricheskie, sobrannye i izdannye arkheograficheskoyu komissieyu. Tom pervye. 1334–1598, (Saint Petersburg: Imperatorskaya Akademiya Nauk, 1841), n:o 98, Akty, otnosyashchiesya k istorii zapadnoi Rossii, sobrannye i izdannye arkheograficheskoyu kommissieyu. Tom pervyi 1340–1506, (Saint Petersburg, 1846), n:o 39, 50, 51, 79, 192 (pp. 289, 338, 340), Pamyatniki diplomaticheskikh snoshenii Moskovskago gosudarstva s Krymskoyu i Nagaiskoyu ordami i s Turtsiei, n:o 2, 23, 66, 68, Gramoty velikago Knyazya Joanna Vasil’evicha k Nagaiskim Mursam i ikh k velikomu Knyazyu Ioannu Vasil’evichu. Prodolzhenie drevnei rossiiskoi Vivliofiki, (Saint Petersburg: Imperatorskaya Akademiya Nauk), tom VIII, 1793, pp. 152–154, and tom IX, 1793, p. 137, Shpilevskii, Drevnye goroda, 169–77.
87. fn8787 Pamyatniki diplomaticheskikh snoshenii Moskovskago gosudarstva so Shvetsiei 1556–1586 gg. eds. N. P. Likhachev-V. V. Maikov. Pamyatniki diplomaticheskikh snoshenii drevnei Rossii s derzhavami inostrannymi po vysochaishemu poveleniyu izdannye Imperatorskim Russkim Istoricheskim Obshchestvom. Sbornik Imperatorskago russkago istoricheskago obshchestva, tom 129, (Saint Petersburg: Imperatorskaya Akademiya Nauk, 1910), nr. 9 (pp. 97–98), Armyano-russkie otnosheniya v XVII veka. Sbornik dokumentov. Tom I, ed. B. A. Parsamyana, (Yerevan: Izd. AN Armyanskoi SSR, 1953), nr. 72, 83, 84, 85, 86, 89, 90, 92, 96, Hanserecesse von 1477–1530, ed. D. Schäfer. Hanserecesse Dritte Abtheilung, (Leipzig: Verein für Hansische Geschichte, 1905), Band VII, n:o 413 § 219 (29.5. – 11.6.1521), Korpela, Viipurin, 174–83.
88. fn8888 Opisanie Kryma (Tartariae Descriptio) Martina Bronevskago, 357–358, 363, Pamyatniki diplomaticheskikh snoshenii Moskovskago gosudarstva s Krymskoyu i Nagaiskoyu ordami i s Turtsiei. Tom I. C 1474 po 1505 god, epokha sverzheniya mongol’skago iga v Rossii, ed. G. F. Karpov. Pamyatniki diplomaticheskikh snoshenii drevnei Rossii s derzhavami inostrannymi po vysochaishemu poveleniyu izdannye Imperatorskim Russkim Istoricheskim Obshchestvom. Sbornik Imperatorskago russkago istoricheskago obshchestva, tom 41, (Saint Petersburg: Russkoe istoricheskoe obshchestvo, 1884), nr. 10, 20, 29, Michalonis Litvani, fragmen novum, Skazanie o nevol’nikakh, osvobodivshihsya iz turetskoi katorgi. Memuary II. F. Evlashevskii, Ya. Sobeskii. Pokhody 1625 i 1628 gg., S. Okol’skii, G. Boblan, Osvobozhdenie nevol’nikov, B. Mashkevich. Perevod K. Mel’nik, ed. V. Antonovich (Kiev: n.p., 1896), 392–7, Quirini-Popławska, Włoski handel, 211–23 Shmidt, Russkie polonyaniki, 31, Berezhkov, Russkie plenniki, 357.
89. fn8989 Anatoli N. Kirpichnikov, “Velikii Volzhkii put’: Gosudarstva, glavnye partnery, torgovye marshruty”, Skandinavskie chteniya, 3 (2002): 7–19, Korpela, Viipurin, 38–39.
90. fn9090 E.g., Materialy po istorii uzbekskoi, Part I: nr. 4, Pamyatniki diplomaticheskikh i torgovykh snoshenii Moskovskoi Rusi s Persiei, ed. N. I. Veselovskii. Tom 1. Tsarstvovanie Fedora Ioannovicha. Trudy vostochnago otdeleniya imperatorskago russkago arkheologicheskago obshchestva, Tom XX, (Saint Petersburg: Imperatorskaya Akademiya Nauk, 1890), 306, Herberstein, 57–58, Early Voyages, I, 49–50, M. N. Berezhkov, “Staryi Holopii Gorodok na Mologe i ego yarmarka”. Trudy sed’mago arkheologicheskago s’’ezda v Yaroslavl’, 1887, ed. Count Uvarov. Tom I, (Moscow: n.p., 1890), 40–47.
91. fn9191 E.g., Novgorodskaya chetvertaya letopis’, 6883 (1375).
92. fn9292 Ioasafovskaya letopis’, 131.
93. fn9393 Jacobi, p. 203, 207–208, Pamyatniki diplomaticheskikh snoshenii Moskovskago gosudarstva so Shvetsiei, n:o 2 (p. 41), 3, 7, 9 (p. 104), Chronica der Provintz Lifflandt, 1584 = Balthasar Russow’s Chronica der Prouinz Lifflandt, in erneuetem Wiederabdruche, mit Wörterbuch und Namenregister versehen, (Riga: Hummel, 1857), 49a, 92b, 93b, 94a, 105b-106a, 115a, 123b.
94. fn9494 Korpela, The World, passim.
95. fn9595 Novgorodskaya chetvertaya letopis’ 6883 (1375), 6885 (1377), Novgorodskaya pervaya letopis’, 6885 (1377).
96. fn9696 Korpela, The World, 143–50.
97. fn9797 Chronica der Provintz Lifflandt, 21a, 23a., Jukka Korpela, “Keskiajan idänuhka” Suomalainen sotilas. Muinaisurhosta nihtiin, ed. Hannele Klemettilä (Hämeenlinna: Weilin + Göös, 2010), 108–13.
98. fn9898 Finlands medeltidsurkunder samlade och i tryck utgifna af Finlands statsarkiv genom Reinh. Hausen (= FMU) IV, (Helsinki: Statsrådets tryckeri, 1924), 3211, 3551, FMU VI, (Helsinki: Statsrådets tryckeri, 1930), 4650, 4682.
99. fn9999 FMU V, (Helsinki: Statsrådets tryckeri, 1928), 4286, Boeck, Identity as Commodity, 259–66, cf. also Michael Khodarkovsky, Russia’s Steppe Frontier. The Making of a Colonial Empire, 1500–1800, (Bloomington – Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2002), 21–6, Filyushkin, Ivan, 251–2, Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters. White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500–1800, (Basingstoke: Plagrave, 2003), 3, 19–21.
100. fn100100 Chronica der Provintz Lifflandt, 49a, 105b-106a.
101. fn101101 Chronica der Provintz Lifflandt, 98b, 99b.
102. fn102102 Patriarshaya ili Nikonovskaya letopis’, 7064 (1556), Dopolneniya k aktam istoricheskim sobrannyya i izdannyya arkheograficheskoyu kommissieyu, tom pervyj, (Saint Petersburg: Imperatorskaya Akademiya Nauk, 1846), n:o 70, Filyushkin, Ivan, 147.
103. fn103103 Vologodskaya letopis’, PSRL 37, (Leningrad: AN SSSR, 1982), 7100 (1592).
104. fn104104 Novyi letopisec, PSRL 14, (Moscow, 1910), c. 33.
105. fn105105 Letopisec Soloveckii na chetyre stoletiya ot osnovaniya soloveckago monastyrya do nastoyashchago vremeni, to est’ s 1429 po 1847 god. Izdanie chetvertoe, vnov ispravlennoe i dopolnennoe iz arkhivykh monastirskikh del i starinnykh dokumentov, trudami nastoyatelya sego monastyrya, arkhimandrita i kavalera Dosifeya, (Moscow: n.p., 1847), 7097 (1589), 7098 (1590), 7101 (1593).
106. fn106106 Zapisnaya kniga, col. 142–143 (no. 388), col. 165 (no. 448), col. 63–64 (no. 177).
107. fn107107 Jacobi, 203.
108. fn108108 Jacobi, 207–8, Vyderzhki iz dnevnika anonima, p. 72, Filyushkin, Ivan, 251.
109. fn109109 Pamyatniki diplomaticheskikh snoshenii Moskovskago gosudarstva so Shveciei, n:o 2 (p. 41), 9 (p. 104).
110. fn110110 Jukka Korpela, “North-Western “Others” in Medieval Rus’ian Chronicles” Uchenye Zapiski Petrozavodskogo gosudarstvennnogo Universiteta, 2 (93) (2008): 42–55.
111. fn111111 Tallinn City archive: B. G. Polonica: Nr. 8 (Bittschriften um Befreiung aus Tatarischer Gefangenschaft), e,g, l. 1, 3ob, 4ob, 5ob, 6, 7, 7ob, 8, 8ob, 9, 10, 11, 18, 20, In Riksarkivet (Stockholm) there is none in Diplomatica: Turcica Bihang vol. I (Svenska sändebuds brev och depescher), Persica, Polonica, Turcica. The first factual Tartar document is from the year 1637, Karl V. Zetterstéen, “De krimska tatarernas diplomatiska korrespondens med den svenska regeringen”, Kungliga Humanistiska Vetenskaps-samfundet i Uppsala Årsbok (1952): 8.
112. fn112112 Pistsovaya kniga kazanskogo uezda 1602–1603 godov. Publikatsiya teksta, (Kazan’: Izdatel’stvo Kazanskogo universiteta, 1978), 103ob., 104, 109, 132ob., 138, 138ob., 177, 180ob., 220ob., Pamyatniki diplomaticheskikh i torgovykh snoshenii Moskovskoi Rusi s Persiei, p. 265.
113. fn113113 Korpela, The World, 283–4.
114. fn114114 Pistsovaya i perepisnaya knigi XVII veka po nizhnemu Novgorodu. Izdannyya arkheograficheskoi kommissiei. Russkaya istoricheskaya biblioteka izdavaemaya imperatorskoyu arkheograficheskoyu kommissieyu tom XVII, (Saint Petersburg: Imperatorskaya Akademiya Nauk, 1896), col. 173–178.
115. fn115115 Imhaus, Le minoranze, 37, 435–562, Heers, Gênes, 98–103.
116. fn116116 Zapisnaya kniga, col. 20 (no. 61), col. 37 (no. 109), col. 63–64 (no. 177), col. 69 (no. 191), col. 101 (no. 283), col. 114 (no. 315), col. 142–143 (no. 388), col. 165 (no. 448), col. 182 (no. 499).
117. fn117117 Korpela, The World, 195–201, 281–3, 269–71.
118. fn118118 Richard Hellie, Slavery in Russia 1450–1725, (Chicago – London: The University of Chicago Press, 1982), 18–21, 33–36.
119. fn119119 Zapisnaya kniga, col. 14 (no. 41), col. 18 (no. 54), col. 18–19 (no. 55), col. 101 (no. 284), col. 104 (no. 292), col. 165 (no. 449), col. 195 (no. 526).
120. fn120120 Zapisnaya kniga, col. 63–64 (no. 177), col. 142–143 (no. 388) col. 165 (no. 448).
121. fn121121 Zapisnaya kniga, col. 179–181 (no. 495), col. 182 (no. 500), col. 199 (no. 531), col. 210–211 (no. 551), Akty zapisanye v krepostnoi knige XVI veka soobshcheny A. B. Lakierom. Arkhiv istoriko-yuridicheskikh svedenii otnosyashchikhsya do Rossii izdavaemyi Nikolaem Kalachovym, Kniga 2:1, (Moscow: n.p., 1855), IX: 1.
122. fn122122 Zapisnaya kniga, col. 47–48 (no. 138), col. 48 (no. 139), col. 63–64 (no. 177), col. 165 (no. 449).
123. fn123123 Novgorodskie pistsovye knigi 1490-h gg. i otpisnye i obrochnye knigi prigorodnykh pozhen novgorodskogo dvortsa 1530-h gg. ed. K. V. Baranov. Pistsovye knigi Novgorodskoi zemli, tom I, (Moscow: Drevlekhranilishche, 1999), 342–3, Pistsovye knigi bezhetskoi pyatiny XVI veka, ed. K. V. Baranov. Pistsovye knigi Novgorodskoi zemli, tom III, (Moscow: Drevlekhranilishche, 2001), p. 74, Pistsovye i perepisnye knigi Novgoroda Velikogo XVII-nachala XVIIIvv. Sbornik dokumentov, ed. I. Yu. Ankudinov, (Saint Petersburg: Dmitrii Bulanin, 2003), 1–65, the references on 6, 10–11.
124. fn124124 Novgorodskie pistsovye knigi, pp. 217, 223–225, 239, 360, 336, 331, Pistsovye knigi bezhetskoi pyatiny XVI veka, 56, 94.
125. fn125125 Pistsovye i perepisnye knigi Staroi Russy konca XV–XVII vv. eds. I. Yu. Ankudinov, K. V. Baranov, A. A. Selin, I. Yu. Ankudinov, (Moscow: Rukopisnye pamyatniki Drevnei Rusi, 2009), 4 (l. 140 ob.), 4 (l. 141), 26 (l. 94 ob.), 35 (l. 4), 36 (l. 7), 43 (l. 29), 52 (l. 63), 71 (l. 136), 104 (l. 285), 136 (l. 60), 151 (l. 93), 179 (l. 164ob.), 225 (l. 274ob.), 254 (l. 348ob.).
126. fn126126 Pistsovye knigi goroda Kazani 1565–1568 gg. i 1646. Materialy po istorii Tatarskoi ASSR. Trudy istoriko-arkheograficheskago instituta AN SSSR, tom IV. Materialy po istorii narodov SSSR, vypusk 2, (Leningrad: Izdatel’stvo AN SSSR, 1932), 21–22 and commentary tablitsa 3, p. 183.
127. fn128127 Akty istoricheskie i yuridicheskie i drevniya tsarskiya gramoty kazanskoi i drugikh sosedstvennykh gubernii sobrannye Stepanom Mel’nikovim. Tom I, (Kazan’: n.p., 1856), n:o 7.
128. fn129128 Pistsovye knigi goroda Kazani, pp. 18, 20, 28, 29, 35, 51, 61 and commentary tablitsa 10, p. 196.
129. fn127129 The numbers are collected from the index of the edition and therefore only approximate figures.
130. fn130130 Pistsovaya kniga kazanskogo uezda 1647–1656 godov, (Moscow: RAN Institut Rossiiskoi istorii-Kazanskii gosudarstvennyi universitet-Institut istorii AN respubliki Tatarstan, 2001), 162, 387ob.
131. fn131131 Pistsovaya i perepisnaya knigi XVII veka, col. 173–178.
132. fn132132 Akty zapisannye v krepostnoi knige, I: 1–3, III: 1–3, IV: 10, 12, 20, 21, IX:1, 3.
133. fn133133 Domostroi, eds. V. V. Kolesov, V. V. Rozhdestvenskaya. 3-e izdanie, (Saint Petersburg: Nauka, 2007), gl. 1, 6, 13, 15–18, 23, 25–29, 32, Jacobi, p. 219, 203, I.I. Sreznevskii, Slovar drevnerusskogo yazyka. Reprintnoe izdanie, I:1, (Moscow: Kniga, 1989), 699.
134. fn134134 Gramoty velikago Knyazya Joanna Vasil’evicha k Nagaiskim Mursam i ikh k velikomu Knyazyu Ioannu Vasil’evichu. Prodolzhenie drevnei rossiiskoi Vivliofiki, tom X, (Saint Petersburg: Imperatorskaya Akademiya Nauk), tom X, 1795, p. 174.
135. fn135135 Pamyatniki diplomaticheskikh i torgovykh snoshenii Moskovskoj Rusi s Persiei, 151–4.
136. fn136136 Materialy po istorii uzbekskoi, Part I: nr. 4, 6, 12, Burton, The Bukharans, 60–61, 469–70.
137. fn137137 Pamyatniki diplomaticheskikh i torgovykh snoshenii Moskovskoi Rusi s Persiei, 213.
138. fn138138 Pamyatniki diplomaticheskikh i torgovykh snoshenii Moskovskoj Rusi s Persiei, 165, 170, 190, 204, 213–214.
139. fn139139 Pamyatniki diplomaticheskikh i torgovykh snoshenii Moskovskoj Rusi s Persiei, 306.
140. fn140140 Posol’stvo v Persiyu knyazya Aleksandra Fedorovicha Zhirovogo-Zavekina, ed. N. Veselovskii. Trudy voctočchnago otdeleniya imperatorskago russkago arkheologicheskago obshchestva. Tom XXII, (Saint Petersburg: Imperatorskaya Akademiya Nauk, 1892), pp. 57–59, 72, 110, 121, 124.
141. fn141141 Gramoty velikago Knyazya Joanna Vasil’evicha, tom X, p. 178, Novosel’skii, Bor’ba, 434–6.
142. fn142142 Patriarshaya ili Nikonovskaya letopis’, 7064 (1556).
143. fn143143 For a list of items, see, for example, Pamyatniki diplomaticheskikh i torgovykh snoshenii Moskovskoi Rusi s Persiei, 311.
144. fn144144 Gramoty velikago Knyazya Joanna Vasil’evicha k Nagaiskim Mursam i ikh k velikomu Knyazyu Ioannu Vasil’evichu. Prodolzhenie drevnei rossiiskoi Vivliofiki, (Saint Petersburg: Imperatorskaya Akademiya Nauk), tom XI, 1801, pp. 52, 65, cf. also Early Voyages, II, 321.
145. fn145145 Pamyatniki diplomaticheskikh i torgovykh snoshenii Moskovskoi Rusi s Persiei, pp. 157–60.
146. fn146146 Materialy po istorii russko-mongol’skikh otnoshenii. Russko-mongol’skie otnosheniya 1607–1636. Sbornik dokumentov, eds. L. M. Gataullina, M. I. Gol’man, G. I. Slesarchuk, I. Ya. Zlatkin, N. V. Ustyugov, (Moscow: Izdatel’stvo Vostochnoi litaratury, 1959), nr. 12, Burton, The Bukharans, 469–470, 483–4, 489, 533.
147. fn147147 Materialy po istorii uzbekskoi, Part I: nr.12, Pamyatniki diplomaticheskikh i torgovykh snoshenii Moskovskoj Rusi s Persiei, 214, 306, 310, 312, Posol’stvo v Persiyu knyazya Aleksandra Fedorovicha Zhirovogo-Zavekina, 57–58.
148. fn148148 A. Selart, Missionerskaya deyatel’nost’ Petcherskogo igumena Korniliya vo vremya Livonskoi voiny (1558–1582). Arkheologiya i istoriya Pskova i pskovskoi zemli, ed. I. K. Labutina & alii, (Moscow – Pskov: IARAN, 2011), 69, 72–74, this is evident, because the Muscovites baptized western Christians and called them “God-less”, cf. Letopisnoe skazanie ob izbavlenii grada Ustyuzhny ot bezbozhnyh lyahov i nemets v 1609 godu, (Saint Petersburg: Kolokol, 1911), 7, 10–11.
149. fn149149 Pistsovaya i perepisnaya knigi XVII veka, col. 173–178.
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2014-03-19
2015-08-31

Affiliations: 1: Department of Geographical and Historical Studies, University of Eastern Finland, jukka.korpela@uef.fi

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