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Arabic-Latin Reception of Aristotle’s Physica and Averroes’ Commentarium magnum: Two Versions in a Manuscript from Toledo

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AbstractSixty-two thirteenth and fourteenth-century Latin manuscripts of Averroes’ commentary of Aristotle’s Physics are currently known. Many of these manuscripts have a substantial gap in Book 8, stretching from about the middle of commentary 76 to the end of commentary 79. The Cathedral Library of Toledo holds a thirteenth-century manuscript which not only contains Book 8 in its entirety, but also two different Arabic-Latin translations of significant parts of textus and commentum 76. Analysis of these two versions allows important insights into the translator’s work.

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2. Hossfeld P. Alberti Magni Ordinis Fratrum Praedicatorum Physica 1993 Münster Aschendorff Pars II. Libri 5-8
3. Aristoteles Latinus (Union Académique Internationale — Corpus philosophorum Medii Aevi academiarum consociatarum auspiciis et consilio editum) Codices 1955 descripsit † G. Lacombe <. . .>, Pars prima [t. 1], 2e éd. aug., Bruges — Paris: 1957; Pars posterior [t. 2]. Cantabrigiae [= Cambridge]
4. Aristoteles Valgimigli Erse De Arte Poetica 1953 Bruges-Paris [latine] Guillelmo De Moerbeke InterpreteReviserunt praefatione indicibusque instruxerunt Aetius Franceschini et Laurentius Minio-Paluello. Aristoteles Latinus, XXXIII
5. Aristoteles Minio-Paluello Laurentius , Latinus Aristoteles De Arte Poetica 1968 Vol XXXIII Bruxelles-Paris 2 Editio Altera
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7. Averroes Aristotelis Opera cum Averrois Commentariis 1562 Vol Vol. 4 Venetiis, Frankfurt am Main Apud Iunctas, Minerva 1962
8. Averroes Aristotelis De physico auditu libri octo: cum Averrois Cordubensis [. . .] Commentariis, Aristotelis Opera cum Averrois Commentariis Vol vol. 4
9. Averroes Averrois Cordubensis Commentarium Magnum in Aristotelis De Anima Libros 1953 Cambridge Rec. F. Stuart Crawford. Corpus Commentariorum Averrois in Aristotelem. Versio latina, VI, 1. The Mediaeval Academy of America.
10. Averroes Averrois Cordubensis Commentarium Medium in Aristotelis De Generatione et Corruptione Libros 1956 Cambridge Rec. F. H. Fobes. Corpus Commentariorum Averrois in Aristotelem. Vers. Lat. IV, 1. The Mediaeval Academy of America
11. Averroes Minio-Paluello L. Averrois Expositio Poeticae Interprete Hermanno Alemanno, Aristoteles Latinus, De Arte Poetica 1968 Bruxelles, Paris Aristoteles Latinus. XXXIII, 2
12. Averroes Goldstein Helen Tunik Averroes’ Questions in Physics 1991 Dordrecht Kluwer Academic Publishers From the unpublished Sêfer ha-derûšîm ha-tib’îyîmThe New Synthese Historical Library. Texts and Studies in the History of Philosophy, Vol. 39
13. Boese Helmut Die mittelalterliche Übersetzung der Stoicheiosis physike des Proclus 1958 Berlin Akademie Verlag
14. Egidii Romani Commentaria in octo libros phisicorum Aristotelis 1502 Venedig, Frankfurt am Main Minerva 1968
15. Goldstein Helen T. See Averroes’ Questions in Physics
16. Guillelmi de Ockhamm Wood R. , Green R. Opera Philosophica et Theologica 1985 New York Editiones Instituti Franciscani Universitatis S. Bonaventurae. St. Bonaventure Opera Philosophica, V: Expositio in libros Physicorum Aristotelislibri IV-VIII
17. Hoßfeld Paul Meyer Gerbert , Zimmermann Albert "“Die Arbeitsweise des Albertus Magnus in seinen naturphilosophischen Schriften”" Albertus Magnus — Doctor Universalis 1280-1980 1980 Mainz 195 204 Walberberger Studien der Albertus-Magnus-Akademie, Philosophische Reihe, 6.
18. Hoßfeld Paul Zimmermann Albert "“Studien zur Physik des Albertus Magnus”" Aristotelisches Erbe im arabisch-lateinischen Mittelalter. Übersetzungen, Kommentare, Interpretationen. Miscellanea mediaevalia 1986 Vol Vol. 18 Berlin de Gruyter 1 42 http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/9783110858969.1
19. de Janduno Johannis Super octo libros Aristotelis De Physico auditu subtilissimae quaestiones 1551, 1969 Venetiis, Frankfurt am Main apud Juntas, Minerva
20. Kurdzialek Marian "“Die ersten Auswirkungen Avicennas Liber de anima seu sextus de naturalibus und Averroes Metaphysik auf die Lateiner.”" Actas del V Congreso Internacional de Filosofia Medieval 1979 Madrid 897 904 Asociación Española de Filosofía Medieval. II
21. Mansion Auguste "“Notes sur les traductions arabo-latines de la Physique d’Aristote dans la tradition manuscrite”" Revue Néoscolastique de philosophie 1934 Vol XXXVII 202 218 http://dx.doi.org/10.3406/phlou.1934.2879
22. Vallicrosa Millás , María José Las traducciones orientales en los manuscritos de la Biblioteca Catedral de Toledo 1942 Madrid Instituto Arias Montano Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas
23. Pattin Adriaan "“Le Liber de causis. Edition établie à l’aide de 90 manuscrits avec introduction et notes.”" Tijdschrift voor Filosofie 1966 Vol 28 90 203
24. Schmieja Horst "“Urbanus Averroista und die mittelalterlichen Handschriften des Physikkommentars von Averroes.”" Bulletin de philosophie médiévale (2000) Vol 42 133 153
25. Smet A. J. "“Alexander van Aphrodisias en S. Thomas van Aquino.”" Tijdschrift voor Philosophie (1959) Vol 21 108 141
26. Aquinatis S. Thomae Maggiolo P. M. In Octo Libros Physicorum Aristotelis Expositio 1954 Turin Marietti
27. Verbeke Gérard Thémistius, Commentaire sur le traité de l’âme d’Aristote, traduction de Guillaume de Moerbeke 1957 Louvain-Paris Edition critique et étude sur l’utilisation du Commentaire dans l’ouvre de saint Thomas. Centre De Wulf-Mansion. Corpus Latinum Commentariorum in Aristotelem Graecorum, I.
28. FN1 1 Aristotelis Opera cum Averrois Commentariis, vol. 4 (Venetiis: Apud Iunctas, 1562; reprint, Frankfurt am Main: Minerva, 1962). Inside front cover, without pagination. This edition from 1562 is an extended version of the basic edition of the Averroes’ Opera from 1550-1552 (in the following: Editio Iuntina).
29. FN2 2It should be noted that in the long introductory prologue by Averroes, these are categorised differently. This prologue is rendered in two versions: In the Editio Iuntina the medieval Arabic-Latin translation is called the translatio antiqua, whereas the version by Jacob Mantinus from the Renaissance that is printed next to it is called the translatio nova.
30. FN3 3Paul Hoßfeld has shown in several of his works that Albert did read small parts of the Physics text also in the translatio novaand used sections from it in his works. Alberti Magni Ordinis Fratrum Praedicatorum Physica, ed. P. Hossfeld, Alberti Magni Opera Omnia, Pars I, Libri 1-4. (Münster: Aschendorff, 1987), xvi, P. Hoßfeld, “Studien zur Physik des Albertus Magnus,” in Miscellanea Mediaevalia, hrsg. v. Albert Zimmermann, Vol. 18 (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1986), 9; ders., ”Die Arbeitsweise des Albertus Magnus in seinen Naturphilosophischen Schriften.” in Albertus Magnus — Doctor Universalis 1280 / 1980, eds. Gerbert Meyer, Albert Zimmermann (Mainz 1980), 199.
31. FN4 4Here an example (Lib. V, Cap. 10): Similiter quaedam generationes sunt violentae et non fatatae, hoc est non secundum cursum naturalem,. . . — Michael Scot’s version does not contain the “non fatatae”. His translation of the Arabic original is as follows: Sunt igitur modi generationis violenti, et generatio non est mensurata aliqua mensuratione. erunt igitur contraria eiusmodi generationis naturalis. Editio Iuntina, fol. 242ra, C. — Ockham took the “non fatatae” from the Greek-Latin translation, which was also used by Thomas Aquinas. Guillelmi de Ockham, Expositio in Libros Physicorum Aristotelis, eds. R. Wood et alii. Opera Philosophica et Theologica V, St. Bonaventure, NY, vol. 5 (New York: 1985), 430. What also points to the fact that Ockham used the translatio antiqua or “cremonensis” is that Ockham comments on the full text 37 in Book 7. This surely means he had access to the complete text 37, which in the Arabic-Latin translation contemporaneous with Michael Scot’s lifetime was only available in parts. See Vol. 5, 694.
32. FN5 5 Egidii Romani Commentaria in octo libros phisicorum Aristotelis, VII, Lectio 1 (Venedig, 1502. Reprint Frankfurt am Main: Minerva, 1968), f. 161va.
33. FN6 6Editio Iuntina, fol. 427vb, K.
34. FN7 7Auguste Mansion, “Notes sur les traductions arabo-latines de la Physique d’Aristote dans la tradition manuscrite,” Revue Néoscolastique de philosophieXXXVII (1934): 202-18.
35. FN8 8Urbanus Averroista commented on these sources in the first half of the 14th century. See my article “Urbanus Averroista und die mittelalterlichen Handschriften des Physikkommentars von Averroes,” Bulletin de philosophie médiévale42 (2000): 133-53.
36. FN9 9“L’origine de la lacune est facile à imaginer. Le traducteur de l’arabe ou un copiste du texte latin a sauté un ou deux feuillets (d’apres le format de l’original utilisé) ou bien s’est servi d’un ms. qui avait perdu accidentellement ces feuillets.” Mansion, “Notes sur les traductions arabo-latines,” 215.
37. FN10 10 Physica[arab.], Arisṭūṭālīs, aṭ-Ṭabīʿa, Tarğamat Isḥāq ibn Ḥunayn maʿa šurūḥ Ibn as-Samḥ wa-Ibn ʿAdī wa-Mattā ibn Yūnus wa-Abī l-Farağ ibn aṭ-Ṭayyib, ed. Abd ar-Raḥmān Badawī, ğuzʾ 1+2, al-Maktaba al-ʿArabiyya, 20. 32 (al-Qāhira, 1384-85/1964-65) (= containing, in the lemmata, the edition of the Arabic translation of the Physicsby Isḥāq ibn Ḥunayn [died 910/911].
38. FN11 11It is likely that John of Janduno had access to such a manuscript of the commentary by Averroes. In between his Quaestiones he renders the sections of Aristotle’s text in their old translation! In his commentary he jumps from chapter 75 in Book 8, which does not contain a corresponding marginal note, = Minerva fol. 122 v, to chapters 78 and 79 as the last text section; as with Averroes both chapters are very long. In both, the 3 lines of Aristotle’s text in chapter 78 and 79 are rendered according to the old translation (fol. 123r and 124v). Johannis de Janduno, Super octo libros Aristotelis De Physico auditu subtilissimae quaestiones.(Venetiis: apud Juntas, 1551. Reprint Frankfurt am Main: Minerva, 1969).
39. FN12 12 Aristoteles Latinus, Codices, vol. 1-2 [with] (Roma: 1939-1955-1961) (= AL), vol. 2: 851-60 Suppl.
40. FN13 13AL, Codices, vol. 2: 859.
41. FN14 14In the scribal abbrevations index by Averroes Latinus: Tb. Toledo 97.2 was originally introduced by Millás-Vallicrosa. José María Millás Vallicrosa, Las traducciones orientales en los manuscritos de la Biblioteca Catedral de Toledo, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. Instituto Arias Montano, (Madrid: 1942), 107f.
42. FN15 15Aristoteles Latinus XXXIII. De Arte Poetica. Guillelmo De Moerbeke Interprete, ed. † Erse Valgimigli. Reviserunt praefatione indicibusque instruxerunt Aetius Franceschini et Laurentius Minio-Paluello, (Bruges-Paris, 1953). Note 9 of the Praefatio on page IX reads: “Hic codex unus est ex libris manu scriptis (octo saltem, scilicet: 47.9, 47.10, 47.11, 47.12, 95.13, 95.14, 97.1, 97.2), qui — philosophica opera complectentes — eiusdem formae, ex eadem membrana eodem modo praeparata atque lineis in singulis paginis instructa, manibus fere similibus exarati (duos vero inter eos unus idemque scriba transcripsit), inde a saec. XIV Toleti exstabant, ut in nonnullis eorum inscriptum legimus./. . ./” Helmut Boese, Die mittelalterliche Übersetzung der Stoicheiosis physike des Proclus(Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1958), 9. (= Elementatio physica) Page 8: T Toledo, Kathedralbibliothek 97.1 Perg. 205 fol. (380 x 250) saec. XIII (around a. 1280) Fol. 94r-104r the Elementatio physica by Proclus; fol. 104v-108v empty. See Ar. Lat. II, no. 1244. Page 9: Notes by Boese: 1) All these manuscripts most likely stem from the library of Gonzalo II Garcia Gudiel, who was later made cardinal (in 1298). In 1280 he became archbishop of Toledo and resided there until 1299; all these texts, along with a “liber de problematibus et Proculus” are mentioned in the inventory of his possessions and books, which was created and certified on December 6th, 1280, in Viterbo. 2). As Viterbo was at the time one of the seats of the papal court, the information in the inventory lead to the assumption that these manuscripts were all created around or just before 1280 in Italy and were probably copied by several scribes using originals from the papal library.
43. FN16 16Gérard Verbeke Thémistius, Commentaire sur le traité de l’âme d’Aristote, traduction de Guillaume de Moerbeke, Edition critique et étude sur l’utilisation du Commentaire dans l’œuvre de saint Thomas, (Louvain-Paris, 1957), LXXXIV-LXXXVI. The statements under Les Manuscrits on page LXXXV: “Le manuscrit 97-1 contient d’abord le Liber de causis, ensuite l’Elementatio Theologica de Proclus, ainsi que l’Elementatio Physica de même auteur, enfin une partie du commentaire d’Averroès sur la Physique. Le codex 97-2 contient le commentaire complet d’Averroès sur la Physique d’Aristote” have to be amended. A. J. Smet, “Alexander van Aphrodisias en S. Thomas van Aquino,” Tijdschrift voor Philosophie21 (1959): 108-41. Onder die hss. neemt codex 97.13 van de Biblioteca Catedral van Toledo, om reden van tekstcritische aard, een belangrijke plaats in. De codex behoort daarenboven tot een groep handschriften van Toledo, die zeer belangrijk zijn voor de studie van de vertalingen van Willem van Moerbeke en die naar alle waarschijnlijkheid van Viterbo afkomstig zijn 10. (p. 110) Note 10: Namelijk de hss. 47.9; 47.10; 47.11; 47.12; 95.13; 95.14; 97.1 en 97.2 van de Biblioteca Catedral van Toledo. Voor de inhoud en de herhomst van die codices, zie Aristoteles Latinus, dl II, nn. 1230, 1231, 1232, 1233, 1242, 1243, 1244 en 1245; (p. 110) Adriaan Pattin, (Hrsg.) “Le Liber de causis. Edition établie à l’aide de 90 manuscrits avec introduction et notes,” Tijdschrift voor Filosofie28 (Ottawa, 1966): 14. Aristoteles Latinus, De Arte Poetica. Editio Altera. Ed. Laurentius Minio-Paluello (Bruxelles-Paris: 21968), XVI. (= AL XXXIII, 2, Averrois Expositio Poeticae. Interprete Hermanno Alemanno seu Poetria Ibinrosdin.)
44. FN17 17Mansion states with some reservation: “Il y a donc lieu de soupconner que saint Albert utilisait un ms. d’Averroes, ou la lacune du livre VIII n’avait pas encore été comblée. La chose toutefois n’est pas certaine.” (Mansion 1934, 217).
45. FN18 18 B. Alberti Magni Ratisbonensis Episcopi, Ordinis Praedicatorum, Opera Omnia, ed. A. Borgnet, vol. III (Paris, 1890): 630 = Lib. 8, Tract. 4, Cap. 5. — Alberti Magni Ordinis Fratrum Praedicatorum Physica.Alberti Magni Opera Omnia, Pars II, Libri 5-8, ed. Paul Hossfeld (Münster: Aschendorff, 1993): 649: Dicit enim Averroes, quod caelum est ens necesse.
46. FN19 19All three sections: lectio XXI, Cap. X. S. Thomae Aquinatis, In Octo Libros Physicorum Aristotelis Expositio, ed. P. M. Maggiolo (Turin: Marietti, 1954): 607, 611 and 614.
47. FN20 20 Averrois Cordubensis Commentarium Magnum in Aristotelis De Anima Libros, rec. F. Stuart Crawford, Corpus Commentariorum Averrois in Aristotelem, versio lat. VI, 1 (Cambridge: The Mediaeval Academy of America, 1953): 25.
48. FN21 21 Averrois Cordubensis Commentarium Medium in Aristotelis De Generatione et Corruptione Libros, rec. F. H. Fobes, Corpus Commentariorum Averrois in Aristotelem, vers. Lat. IV, 1, The Mediaeval Academy of America (Cambridge, 1956): 55.
49. FN22 22Reference lit.: AL, No. 105 — AL No. 588 — AL No. 671 — Marian Kurdzialek, “Die ersten Auswirkungen Avicennas ‘Liber de Anima seu sextus de naturalibus’ und Averroes’ Metaphysik auf die Lateiner,” in Actas del V Congreso Internacional de Filosofia Medieval, II, (Madrid, 1979): 897–904. — Averroes, Questions in Physics, from the unpublished Sêfer ha-derûšîm ha-tib’îyîmtranslated and edited by Helen Tunik Goldstein, Studies in the History of Philosophy, vol. 39 (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991), multotiens.
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2012-01-01
2015-07-02

Affiliations: 1: Thomas-Institut, University of Cologne, URL: http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink

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