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How Muhammad Rahīm Khān II of Khiva (1864-1910) cultivated his Court Library as a Means of Resistance against the Russian Empire

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As a reaction to the Russian occupation of Khiva in 1873 the ruler, Muhammad Rahīm Khān II (1864-1910), opted for a cultural policy that can be considered as a strategy of resistance against the invaders and the modernity they brought with them. This led, in a period of political decline for the Khān, to a remarkable cultural and literary flowering, in which at least some modernity, such as the printing press, was included.

Affiliations: 1: Department of Classical Philology of the Orient Tashkent State Institute of Oriental Studies, Email:


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