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PHYSICOCHEMICAL FACTORS INDUCING EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT AND SPRING HATCHING OF THE EUROPEAN FAIRY SHRIMP SIPHONOPHANES GRUBEI (DYBOWSKY) (CRUSTACEA: ANOSTRACA)

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ABSTRACT Physicochemical hatching stimuli of the north European anostracan Siphonophanes grubei (Dybowsky) were identified on the basis of field measurements and laboratory experiments. A small pool inhabited by this species in Denmark exhibited high pCO2 and low temperature pO2, and pH while ice-covered just before the spring thaw. During thaw, when newly hatched nauplii were first caught, pCO2 decreased and pO2, pH, and temperature increased. In the laboratory eggs of S. grubei require a warm period (>15°C) for at least 21 days before embryonic development at lower temperatures (<10°C) can proceed to prehatched, dormant nauplii, taking 42-136 days. Final hatching was stimulated by an elevated pCO2 comparable to that observed in the field before thaw, taking effect when sufficient oxygen became available during thaw. A model of the factors regulating the life cycle of this anostracan throughout the year is presented.

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/content/journals/10.1163/193724086x00497
1986-01-01
2016-12-09

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