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A NEW ABYSSAL EUPHAUSIID, THYSANOPODA MINYOPS, WITH COMPARISONS OF EYE SIZE, PHOTOPHORES, AND ASSOCIATED STRUCTURES AMONG DEEP-LIVING SPECIES

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ABSTRACT Thysanopodaminyops, from 3,600-5,000 m depth in the central North Pacific is a large (> 120 mm) euphausiid. This species has small eyes with few facets but with large crystalline cones. Photophores seem to be lacking, but where the first abdominal photophore is usually present on euphausiids, there is a specialized, ventrally protruding process (lobe) of unknown function. Bathypelagic (1,000-3,000 m) Thysanopoda cornuta and T. spinicaudata possess similar first segment lobes but also have such lobes on the fifth segment. Occurrence of similar lobes in relation to photophores in the several mesopelagic euphausiids, especially the vertical migrators, is described. Epipelagic species possess photophores but lack the lobes. Apparently blind, deep-living Bentheuphausia amblyops lacks photophores but has a series of lobes like those in the above species.Unique eye-size changes in relation to body length in deep-living T. cornuta and T. egregia are described: (1) eye size increases rapidly during ascent of early larval stages from bathypelagic to upper-mesopelagic depths, (2) decreases rapidly in later larval life during descent to postlarval depths, and (3) increases slowly thereafter, accompanying relative diminution of photophores. Thysanopoda spinicaudata, which has smaller eyes than T. cornuta, though much larger than T. minyops, seems to lack abdominal photophores but shows postlarval changes in relative eye size that are similar to the species that possess photophores. These and other adaptations to great depths, such as gill size, are considered.

10.1163/193724087X00405
/content/journals/10.1163/193724087x00405
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/content/journals/10.1163/193724087x00405
2017-10-22

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