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FACTORS AFFECTING THE DISTRIBUTION AND CO-OCCURRENCE OF TWO SOUTHERN CALIFORNIAN ANOSTRACANS (BRANCHIOPODA), BRANCHINECTA SANDIEGONENSIS AND STREPTOCEPHALUS WOOTTONI

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ABSTRACT We address the role of temperature and maturation rate in limiting the distribution and co-occurrence of 2 ephemeral pool branchiopods, Branchinecta sandiegonensis and Streptocephalus woottoni (Anostraca), in southern California. Branchinecta sandiegonensis occurs in pools of variable depth (from <5 cm to >30 cm) and duration, while Streptocephalus woottoni is found only in deeper pools (>30 cm) of longer duration. These 2 species co-occur in a few pools, but their adults are never observed simultaneously. To better understand these patterns, fieldcollected cysts of both species were hatched at an array of constant and 12-h fluctuating temperatures. Maturation rates were compared in aquaria at room temperature (∼20―22°C) and by field observation. Both species hatched best at cooler temperatures (10°C and fluctuating 5― 15°C), but S. woottoni was more eurythermal. Both were inhibited at higher temperatures unless these temperatures were included in a fluctuating regime. After hatching, B. sandiegonensis did not mature at 5°C. In laboratory and field observations, B. sandiegonensis matured quickly (1― 2 weeks) at moderate temperatures and died before S. woottoni reached maturity. These results indicate that temperature plays a role in restricting the distribution of these species to the coast, where temperatures are favorable. Slower maturation rate helps to explain the absence of S. woottoni from shallow, potentially short-lived pools and why the 2 species co-occur but do not coexist as adults in deeper pools.

10.1163/193724096X00757
/content/journals/10.1163/193724096x00757
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/content/journals/10.1163/193724096x00757
2017-11-23

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