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PHYLOGENY AND ZOOGEOGRAPHY OF THE PLANKTONIC COPEPOD GENUS TORTANUS (CALANOIDA: TORTANIDAE), WITH ESTABLISHMENT OF A NEW SUBGENUS AND DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW SPECIES

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ABSTRACT Tortanus (Boreotortanus), new subgenus, is established to accommodate the North Pacific/northwestern Atlantic species T. discaudatus and the taxonomy and ecology of the five subgenera in the genus Tortanus are discussed. Tortanus sensu stricto occurs in eutrophic waters in the Indo-West Pacific, Atortus in oligotrophic waters in the same region, Eutortanus in brackish waters in East Asia, Acutanus in eutrophic waters in the northwestern Atlantic, and Boreotortanus in eutrophic waters in the North Pacific and the northwestern Atlantic. Two new species are described: T. (Eutortanus) terminalis and T. (Acutanus) ecornatus. Phylogenetic relationships among the 5 subgenera were constructed based on cladistic and zoogeographical analyses. Boreotortanus may have originated in the Sea of Japan; Eutortanus in the East China Sea; Tortanus sensu stricto in the Indo-Malayan region. The final divergence is represented by the Atortus-Acutanus clade, which is characterized by reductions of elements on the antennule, the antenna, legs 2 and 3 of both sexes, and elongation of the left leg 5 of males. The ancestor of Acutanus could have colonized the northwestern Atlantic from the Indo-Malayan region through the Isthmus of Panama during the Middle Miocene to Pliocene. It appears that Atortus first succeeded in exploiting clear oligotrophic waters and in developing swarming behavior to avoid visual predators in such clear waters. These originally tropical copepods seem to have secondarily adapted to cold waters along the East Asian archipelagoes during the Pleistocene.

10.1163/193724098X00656
/content/journals/10.1163/193724098x00656
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/content/journals/10.1163/193724098x00656
2017-10-21

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