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PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS OF CRUSTACEANS WITH FOLIACEOUS LIMBS: AN 18S rDNA STUDY OF BRANCHIOPODA, CEPHALOCARIDA, AND PHYLLOCARIDA

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ABSTRACT Sequence data for the small-subunit, 18S ribosomal-DNA gene (1,800+ nucleotides), representing 10 crustaceans (three branchiopods, a cephalocarid, a phyllocarid, a hoplocarid, a syncarid, a eucarid, and two copepods) and three arthropod outgroups (Chelicerata, Insecta, Myriapoda), were analyzed by maximum parsimony and neighbor-joining methods of phylogenetic inference as a test of several competing hypotheses about relationships among crustaceans possessing foliaceous limbs (e.g., branchiopods, cephalocarids, and phyllocarids). Results strongly support three clades among the crustacean ingroup: a branchiopod clade, a (cephalocarid + copepod) clade, and a malacostracan clade that includes the phyllocarid leptostracan Nebalia sp. as a basal lineage. Relationships among these 3 clades remain unclear. The (cephalocarid + copepod) relationship, although strongly supported (bootstrap proportion = 93) in this analysis, is suspect because of a highly divergent sequence and a very long branch for the cephalocarid Hutchinsoniella macracantha. There is little doubt, however, that the presence of foliaccous limbs does not define a monophyletic clade comprising branchiopods, cephalocarids, and phyllocarids. This limb morphology may be a symplesiomorphic feature of the Crustacea, but it appears likely that it has had multiple origins.

10.1163/193724099X00538
/content/journals/10.1163/193724099x00538
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/content/journals/10.1163/193724099x00538
2017-12-12

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