Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

High density and strong aggregation do not increase prevalence of the isopod Hemioniscus balani (Buchholz, 1866), a parasite of the acorn barnacle Chthamalus fissus (Darwin, 1854) in California

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

This Article is currently unavailable for purchase.
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

Cover image Placeholder

Parasitism is a common life history strategy among animals and has been the topic of empirical and theoretical study for decades. Many classic mathematical models assume increased spatial aggregation and density increase prevalence in a host population. Parasites can nevertheless take on a diversity of life history strategies that could result in deviations from these assumptions. I investigated the importance of density and aggregation of hosts on the prevalence, or percent of hosts infected by a parasitic castrator with a complex life cycle. An isopod parasite, Hemioniscus balani (Buchholz, 1866), infects an intertidal barnacle, Chthamalus fissus (Darwin, 1854), and renders the barnacle unable to produce eggs. To test the assumptions that density and aggregation increase parasitism, I conducted a survey of density, aggregation, and parasitism in the rocky intertidal zone in Santa Barbara County, CA, USA. I found spatial patterns of host density and aggregation did not lead to increases in parasitism. Furthermore, there was no evidence of a selfish herd effect, whereby the per capita risk of infection decreases with population size. Understanding patterns and drivers of infection is particularly important in marine systems, which are understudied compared to terrestrial diseases, and work done in terrestrial systems could not correspond to patterns and processes in marine systems.

Affiliations: 1: Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology, University of California Santa Barbara, 552 University Road, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Anderson R. M. , May R. M. . 1978. "Regulation and stability of host-parasite population interactions, I. Regulatory processes". Journal of Animal Ecology Vol 47: 219-247.
2. Arneberg P. , Skorping A. , Grenfell B. , Read A. F. . 1998. "Host densities as determinants of abundance in parasite communities". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences Vol 265: 1283-1289.
3. Begon M. 2008. "Effects of host diversity on disease dynamics", pp.  12-29. In, Ostfeld R. S. , Keesing F. , Eviner V. T. (eds.), Infectious Disease Ecology: Effects of Ecosystems on Disease and of Disease on Ecosystems. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
4. Beldomenico P. M. , Telfer S. , Gebert S. , Lukomski L. , Bennett M. , Begon M. . 2008. "The dynamics of health in wild field vole populations: a haematological perspective". Journal of Animal Ecology Vol 77: 984-997.
5. Blower S. M. , Roughgarden J. . 1988. "Parasitic castration: host species preferences, size-selectivity and spatial heterogeneity". Oecologia Vol 75: 512-515.
6. Blower S. M. , Roughgarden J. . 1989. "Parasites detect host spatial pattern and density: a field experimental analysis". Oecologia Vol 78: 138-141.
7. Buchholz R. 1866. "Ueber Hemioniscus, eine neue Gattung parasitischer Isopoden". Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche Zoologie Vol 16: 303-327.
8. Connell J. H. 1961. "The influence of interspecific competition and other factors on the distribution of the barnacle Chthamalus stellatus ". Ecology Vol 42: 710-723.
9. Crisp D. J. 1968. "Distribution of the parasitic isopod Hemioniscus balani with special reference to the east coast of North America". Journal of the Fisheries Board of Canada Vol 25: 1161-1167.
10. Darwin C. 1854. A Monograph on the Sub-Class Cirripedia. Vol Vol. 2. Ray Society, London.
11. De Meeûs T. , Renaud F. . 2002. "Parasites within the new phylogeny of eukaryotes". Trends in Parasitology Vol 18: 247-251.
12. Ebert D. , Lipsitch M. , Mangin K. L. . 2000. "The effect of parasites on host population density and extinction: experimental epidemiology with Daphnia and six microparasites". American Naturalist Vol 156: 459-477.
13. Fauchald P. , Rødven R. , Bårdsen B. J. , Langeland K. , Tveraa T. , Yoccoz N. G. , Ims R. A. . 2007. "Escaping parasitism in the selfish herd: age, size and density-dependent warble fly infestation in reindeer". Oikos Vol 116: 491-499.
14. Hamilton W. D. 1971. "Geometry for the selfish herd". Journal of Theoretical Biology Vol 31: 295-311.
15. Hansen F. , Jeltsch F. , Tackmann K. , Staubach C. , Thulke H. H. . 2004. "Processes leading to a spatial aggregation of Echinococcus multilocularis in its natural intermediate host Microtus arvalis ". International Journal for Parasitology Vol 34: 37-44.
16. Harvell C. D. , Kim K. , Burkholder J. M. , Colwell R. R. , Epstein P. R. , Grimes D. J. , Hoffmann E. E. , Lipp E. K. , Osterhaus A. D. M. E. , Overstreet R. M. , Porter J. W. , Smith G. W. , Vasta G. R. . 1999. "Emerging marine diseases-climate links and anthropogenic factors". Science Vol 285: 1505-1510.
17. Harvell C. D. , Mitchell C. E. , Ward J. R. , Altizer S. , Dobson A. P. , Ostfeld R. S. , Samuel M. D. . 2002. "Climate warming and disease risks for terrestrial and marine biota". Science Vol 296: 2158-2162.
18. Hassell M. P. , May R. M. . 1973. "Stability in insect host-parasite models". Journal of Animal Ecology Vol 42: 693-726.
19. Hassell M. P. , May R. M. . 1974. "Aggregation of predators and insect parasites and its effect on stability". Journal of Animal Ecology Vol 43: 567-594.
20. Kuris A. M. 1974. "Trophic interactions: similarity of parasitic castrators to parasitoids". Quarterly Review of Biology Vol 49: 129-148.
21. Lafferty K. D. , Kuris A. M. . 2002. "Trophic strategies, animal diversity and body size". Trends in Ecology and Evolution Vol 17: 507-513.
22. Lafferty K. D. , Kuris A. M. . 2009. "Parasitic castration: the evolution and ecology of body snatchers". Trends in Parasitology Vol 25: 564-572.
23. Lafferty K. D. , Porter J. W. , Ford S. E. . 2004. "Are diseases increasing in the ocean?" Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics Vol 35: 31-54.
24. Long Z. T. , O’Connor M. I. , Bruno J. F. . 2012. "Effects of predation on intraspecific aggregation of prey and prey diversity in a subtidal marine food web". Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology Vol 416: 115-120.
25. May R. M. , Anderson R. M. . 1979. "Population biology of infectious diseases: part II". Nature Vol 280: 455-461.
26. McCallum H. I. , Kuris A. M. , Harvell C. D. , Lafferty K. D. , Smith G. W. , Porter J. . 2004. "Does terrestrial epidemiology apply to marine systems?" Trends in Ecology & Evolution Vol 19: 585-591.
27. Morisita M. 1959. "Measuring of the dispersion of individuals and analysis of the distributional patterns". Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University Series E Vol 2: 5-235.
28. Nicholson A. J. , Bailey V. A. . 1935. "The balance of animal populations – part I". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London Vol 105: 551-598.
29. Pilsbry H. A. 1916. "The sessile barnacles (Cirripedia) contained in the collections of the U.S. National Museum; including a monograph of the American species". Bulletin of the United States National Museum Vol 93: 1-366.
30. Smith N. F. 2001. "Spatial heterogeneity in recruitment of larval trematodes to snail intermediate hosts". Oecologia Vol 127: 115-122.
31. Thieltges D. W. , Reise K. . 2007. "Spatial heterogeneity in parasite infections at different spatial scales in an intertidal bivalve". Oecologia Vol 150: 569-581.
32. Thieltges D. W. , Bordalo M. D. , Caballero Hernández A. , Prinz K. , Jensen K. T. . 2008. "Ambient fauna impairs parasite transmission in a marine parasite-host system". Parasitology Vol 135: 1111-1116.
33. Ward J. R. , Lafferty K. D. . 2004. "The elusive baseline of marine disease: are diseases in ocean ecosystems increasing?" PLoS Biology Vol 2: e120.
34. Whitton T. A. , Jenkins S. R. , Richardson C. A. , Hiddink J. G. . 2012. "Aggregated prey and predation rates: juvenile shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) foraging on post-larval cockles (Cerastoderma edule)". Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology Vol 432: 29-36.
35. Wood C. L. , Lafferty K. D. . 2013. "Biodiversity and disease: a synthesis of ecological perspectives on Lyme disease transmission". Trends in Ecology & Evolution Vol 28: 239-247.

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation