Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Detection of growth zones in the eyestalk of the Antarctic krill Euphausia superba (Dana, 1852) (Euphausiacea)

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

This Article is currently unavailable for purchase.
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

No reliable measures of age currently exist in the Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba (Dana, 1852). The eyestalks from 51 individuals were dissected, cut in longitudinal sections and studied for identifying growth zones. The krill was collected at the South Orkney Islands during January and February 2015, and varied between 30 and 53 mm in total body length. Up to six growth zones were identified, each zone consisting of one light and one dark section. The width of the longitudinal sections increased with increasing body length, although there were differences between sexes. Females tended to have narrower growth zones from the third zone and onwards compared with males. Data show that male subadult stages (MIIA1, MIIA2 and MIIA3) had 2.2 ± 0.8 (average ± SD) zones and adult male stages had 3.8 ± 0.8 zones. The female juvenile stage (FIIB) had 1.7 ± 0.5 zones and adult females (FIIIA-E) had 3.7 ± 1.0 zones. There were positive relationships between the number of zones and the maturity stage, and between the number of zones and body length. Further knowledge about molting process in the Antarctic krill and a verification of the ageing procedure from krill with a known age is needed before the number of growth zones can be definitely established as an indicator of age. The detection of growth zones in the Antarctic krill will be an important contribution to the understanding of the biology of the species if the zones actually represent annual growth.

Affiliations: 1: Institute of Marine Research, P.O. Box 1870 Nordnes, 5817 Bergen, Norway


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Atkinson A. , Shreeve R. S. , Hirst A. G. , Rothery P. , Tarling G. A. , Pond D. W. , Korb R. E. , Murphy E. J. , Watkins J. L. . 2006. "Natural growth rates in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba): II. Predictive models based on food, temperature, body length, sex, and maturity stage". Limnology and Oceanography Vol 51: 973-987.
2. Auerswald L. , Meyer B. , Teschke M. , Hagen W. , Kawaguchi S. . 2015. "Physiological response of adult Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, to longterm starvation". Polar Biology Vol 38: 763-780.
3. Brösing A. 2014. "Foregut structures of freshly moulted exuviae from Maja crispata, Cancer pagurus and Pseudosesarma moeschi (Decapoda: Brachyura)". Journal of Natural History (London) Vol 48: 543-555.
4. Campana S. E. 2001. "Accuracy, precision and quality control in age determination, including a review of the use and abuse of age validation methods". Journal of Fish Biology Vol 59: 197-242.
5. Campana S. E. , Neilson J. D. . 1982. "Daily growth increments in otoliths of starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) and the influence of some environmental variables in their production". Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Vol 39: 937-942.
6. Clarke A. , Morris D. J. . 1983. "Towards an energy budget for krill: the physiology and biochemistry of Euphasia superba Dana". Polar Biology Vol 2: 69-86.
7. Dana J. D. 1852. "Crustacea, Part I". In, United States Exploring Expedition during the Years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842, under the Command of Charles Wilkes. U.S.N. Vol Vol. 13. C. Sherman, Philadelphia, PA.
8. Ettershank G. 1983. "Age structure and cyclical annual size change in the Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba Dana". Polar Biology Vol 2: 189-193.
9. Iglesias M. , Brother E. B. , Morales N. B. . 1997. "Validation of daily increment deposition in otoliths. Age and growth determination of Aphia minuta (Pisces: Gobiidae) from the northwest Mediterranean". Marine Biology Vol 129: 279-287.
10. Ikeda T. , Dixon P. . 1982. "Body shrinkage as a possible overwintering mechanism of the Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba Dana". Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology Vol 62: 143-151.
11. Ivanov B. G. 1970. "On the biology of the Antarctic krill Euphausia superba ". Marine Biology Vol 7: 340-351.
12. Iversen E. S. 1996. Living Marine Resources: Their Utilization and Management. Chapman and Hall, New York, NY.
13. Kilada R. , Agnalt A.-L. , Arboem N. H. , Bjarnasonm S. , Burmeister A. , Farestveit E. , Gíslason O. S. , Guðlaugsdóttir A. , Guðmundsdóttir D. , Jónasson J. P. , Jónsdóttir I. G. , Kvalsund M. , Sheridan M. , Stansbury D. , Søvik G. . 2015. "Feasibility of using growth band counts in age determination of four crustacean species in northern Atlantic". Journal of Crustacean Biology Vol 35: 499-503.
14. Kilada R. , Ibrahim N. K. . 2016. "Preliminary investigation of direct age determination using band counts in the gastric mill of the Blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus Linnaeus, 1758) in two salt-water lakes in the eastern Mediterranean". Journal of Crustacean Biology Vol 36: 119-126.
15. Kilada R. , Sainte-Marie B. , Rochette R. , Davis N. , Vanier C. , Campana S. E. . 2012. "Direct determination of age in shrimps, crabs and lobsters". Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Vol 69: 1728-1733.
16. Kodama K. , Shiraishi H. , Morita M. , Horiguchi T. . 2006. "Verification of lipofuscin-based crustacean ageing: seasonality of lipofuscin accumulation in the stomatopod Oratosquilla oratoria in relation to water temperature". Marine Biology Vol 150: 131-140.
17. Krafft B. A. , Krag L. A. . 2015. "Assessment of mortality of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) escaping from a trawl". Fisheries Research Vol 170: 102-105.
18. Krafft B. A. , Melle W. , Knutsen T. , Bagøien E. , Broms C. , Ellertsen B. , Siegel V. . 2010. "Distribution and demography of Antarctic krill in the Southeast Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean during the austral summer 2008". Polar Biology Vol 33: 957-968.
19. Krafft B. A. , Skaret G. , Knutsen T. . 2015. "An Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) hotspot – population characteristics, abundance and vertical structure explored from a krill fishing vessel". Polar Biology Vol 38: 1687-1700.
20. Krafft B. A. , Skaret G. , Knutsen T. , Melle W. , Klevjer T. , Søiland H. . 2012. "Antarctic krill swarm characteristics in the Southeast Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean". Marine Ecology Progress Series Vol 465: 69-83.
21. Krøyer H. 1838. "Conspectus Crustaceorum Groenlandiae". Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift Vol 1(2): 249-261.
22. Leland J. C. , Bucher D. J. , Coughran J. . 2015. "Direct age determination of a subtropical freshwater crayfish (redclaw, Cherax quadricarinatus) using ossicular growth marks". PLoS ONE Vol 10: e0134966.
23. Leland J. C. , Coughran J. , Bucher D. J. . 2011. A preliminary investigation into the potential value of gastric mills for ageing crustaceans, pp. 57-68. In, A. Asakura (ed.), New Frontiers in Crustacean Biology: Proceedings of the TCS Summer Meeting. Tokyo, 20-24 September 2009.
24. Linnaeus C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Tomus I. Editio Decima, Reformata. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae [= Stockholm].
25. Mackintosh N. A. 1973. "Distribution of post-larval krill in the Antarctic". Discovery Reports Vol 36: 95-156.
26. Makarov R. R. , Denys C. J. I. . 1981. Stages of sexual maturity of Euphausia superba . BIOMASS Handbook 11. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, Cambridge.
27. Marr J. 1962. "The natural history and geography of the Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba Dana)". Discovery Reports Vol 32: 33-464.
28. Maxwell K. E. , Matthews T. R. , Sheehy M. R. J. , Bertelsen R. D. , Derby C. D. . 2007. "Neurolipofuscin is a measure of age in Panulirus argus, the Caribbean spiny lobster, in Florida". Biological Bulletin (Woods Hole) Vol 213: 55-66.
29. Miller D. G. M. , Hampton I. . 1990. "Synopsis of the biology and ecology of the Antarctic krill, Euphasia superba Dana". Polar Biology Vol 7: 485-487.
30. Milne Edwards H. 1837. Histoire naturelle des Crustacés, comprenant l’anatomie, la physiologie et la classification de ces animaux. Vol Vol. 2. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris.
31. Monaghan J. F. 1993. "Comparison of calsein and tetracycline as chemical markers in summer flounder". Transactions of the American Fisheries Society Vol 122: 298-301.<0298:NCOCAT>2.3.CO;2
32. Nicol S. 1987. "Some limitations on the use of the lipofuscin ageing technique". Marine Biology Vol 93: 609-614.
33. Nicol S. . 2000. "Understanding krill growth and aging: the contribution of experimental studies". Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Vol 57: 168-177.
34. Nicol S. , de la Mare W. K. , Stolf M. . 1995. "The energetic cost of egg production in Antarctic krill (Euphasia superba Dana)". Antarctic Science Vol 7: 25-30.
35. Nicol S. , Foster J. , Kawaguchi S. . 2012. "The fishery for Antarctic krill – recent developments". Fish and Fisheries Vol 13: 30-40.
36. Oliveira K. 1996. "Field validation of annual growth rings in the American eel, Anguilla rostrata, using tetracycline-marked otoliths". Fishery Bulletin Vol 94: 186-189.
37. Pape E. , Jones D. O. B. , Manini E. , Bezerra T. N. , Vanreusel A. . 2013. "Benthic-Pelagic Coupling: Effects on Nematode Communities along Southern European Continental Margins". PLoS ONE Vol 9: e59954.
38. Quetin L. B. , Ross R. M. . 1991. "Behavioral and physiological characteristics of the Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba ". American Zoologist Vol 31: 49-63.
39. Quetin L. B. , Ross R. M. . 2001. "Environmental variability and its impact on the reproductive cycle of Antarctic krill". American Zoologist Vol 41: 74-89.
40. Rathbun M. J. 1896. "The genus Callinectes". Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum Vol 18: 349-375.
41. Rosenberg A. A. , Beddington J. , Basson M. . 1986. "Growth and longevity of krill during the first decade of pelagic whaling". Nature Vol 324: 152-154.
42. Ruud J. T. 1932. "On the biology of Southern Auphausiidae". Hvalrådets Skrifter Vol 2: 1-105.
43. Schmidt K. , Atkinson A. , Steigenberger S. , Fielding S. , Lindsay M. C. M. , Pond D. W. , Tarling G. A. , Klevjer T. A. , Allen C. S. , Nicol S. , Achterberg E. P. . 2011. "Seabed foraging by Antarctic krill: implications for stock assessment, bentho-pelagic coupling, and the vertical transfer of iron". Limnology and Oceanography Vol 56: 1411-1428.
44. Schmitt P. D. 1984. "Marking growth increments in otoliths of larval and juvenile fish by immersion in tetracycline to examine the rate of increment formation". Fishery Bulletin Vol 82: 237-242.
45. Sheehy M. , Caputi N. , Chubb C. , Belchier M. . 1998. "Use of lipofuscin for resolving cohorts of western rock lobster (Panulirus cygnus)". Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Vol 55: 925-936.
46. Shin H. C. , Nicol S. . 2002. "Using the relationship between eye diameter and body length to detect the effects of long-term starvation on Antarctic krill Euphausia superba ". Marine Ecology Progress Series Vol 239: 157-167.
47. Siegel V. , Bergström B. , Mühlenhardt-Siegel U. , Thomasson M. . 2002. "Demography of krill in the Elephant Island area during summer 2001 and its significance for stock recruitment". Antarctic Science Vol 14: 162-170.
48. Siegel V. , Bergström B. , Strömberg J. O. , Schalk P. . 1990. "Distribution, size frequencies and maturity stages of krill, Euphausia superba, in relation to sea ice in northern Weddell Sea". Polar Biology Vol 10: 549-557.
49. Sun S. , de la Mare W. , Nicol S. . 1995. "The compound eye as an indicator of age and shrinkage in Antarctic krill". Antarctic Science Vol 7: 387-392.
50. Tarling G. A. , Hill S. , Peat H. , Fielding S. , Reiss C. , Atkinson A. . 2016. "Growth and shrinkage in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is sex-dependent". Marine Ecology Progress Series. DOI:.
51. Tarling G. A. , Shreeve R. S. , Hirst A. G. , Atkinson A. , Pond D. W. , Murphy E. J. , Watkins J. L. . 2006. "Natural growth rates in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba). I. Improving methodology and predicting intermolt period". Limnology and Oceanography Vol 51: 959-972.
52. Uglem I. , Belchier M. , Svåsand T. . 2005. "Age determination of European lobsters (Homarus gammarus L.) by histological quantification of lipofuscin". Journal of Crustacean Biology Vol 25: 95-99.
53. Vatcher H. E. , Roer R. D. , Dillaman R. M. . 2015. "Structure, molting, and mineralization of the dorsal ossicle complex in the gastric mill of the Blue crab, Callinectes sapidus ". Journal of Morphology Vol 276: 1358-1367.
54. Vogt G. 2012. "Ageing and longevity in the Decapoda (Crustacea): a review". Zoologischer Anzeiger Vol 251: 1-25.
55. von Martens E. 1868. "Überblick der neuholländishen Flusskrebse". Monatsbericht der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin Vol 1868: 615-619.
56. Wahle R. A. , Tully O. , O’Donovan V. . 1996. "Lipofuscin as an indicator of age in crustaceans, analysis of the pigment in the lobster, Homarus americanus ". Marine Ecology Progress Series Vol 138: 117-123.

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation