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ABSTRACT In order to properly understand the origins of the Order Amphipoda. their phylogenetic position within the Superorder Peracarida must first be established. A hypothetical ancestral peracarid is derived from Dahl's hypothetical ancestral eumalacostracan, which was proposed as lacking a carapace. The independent derivation of a carapace for special needs on at least two occasions is thus a central feature of a new phylogenetic arrangement for the peracaridan orders. This phylogeny is based on an analysis of 29 character states using Hennigian methods. Two lineages are immediately apparent: I, a heterogeneous line containing the Amphipoda, Mysidacea, and Thermosbaenacea; and 2, a homogeneous "mancoid" line leading from the Isopoda through the Spelaeogriphacea and Tanaidacea to the Cumacea. The mancoid line as proposed is inverted relative to earlier phylogenetic schemes; however, this new arrangement is more in accord with the known fossil record. It is suggested that future examinations of the phylogeny of peracarid orders be based on a scheme for the Superorder, thus enabling plesiomorphic features of individual orders to be properly defined. Lastly, the polyphyletic nature of the Peracarida is discussed and it is suggested that at least three independent lines of "peracaridan" radiation might have arisen from a pre-Carboniferous syncarid-like ancestral eumalacostracan.

Affiliations: 1: Department of Oceanography, Ira C. Darling Center, University of Maine at Orono, Walpole, Maine 04573.


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