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Les Termes D'adresse Dans Les Operas Des Yuan (XIIIe Et XIVe Siecles)

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image of Cahiers de Linguistique Asie Orientale

The corpus of this study includes thirty-four operas of the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368) : literature in spoken language and which spreads over a relatively short period of time.The prinaipal option of address in Yuan drama is, like in contemporay Chinese, the choice between 1) use of kinship terms (KT), use of titles (T), 3) use of the last name (LN) and/or the first name (FN) of the addressee. KT are used muah more frequently ly popular classes. The T mode of address is used almost exclusively inside the Court. T are slightly more frequent than KT in the milieu of mandarins and courtesans.The KT can be used within the family or outside the family. Within the family, the generation relationship between the speaker and the addressee and the age criterion are essential for the choice of KT. Outside the family, age and even generation relation ships are of little importance. Social status is essential. The others parameters (respect, intimacy, etc.) are also important.T are theortically reserved for strangers or people whom one knows but not intimately. If the addressee of a specific title is an intimate friend or companion of the speaker, it means that considerable respect exists between the two persons, or that their milieu is marked by very strict social conventions as in the Imperial Court.Except under particular circumstances, the formula LN and for FN is used by a superior to address an inferior. More foten than not, the LN and FN formula indicates a certain annoyance or an obvious lock of respect. One never addresses a superior or an elder by his given name alone. The term is reserved for domestics and maids, between good friends, between husband and wife, and for parents to address their children.


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