Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

In Sudan’s Eastern Borderland: Frontier Societies of the Qwara Region (ca. AD 600-1850)

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Journal of African Archaeology

The Sudanese-Ethiopian borderland has seen interaction between state and non-state peoples for at least two millennia. However, little is known about these interactions from an archaeological point of view. Our research project intends to cast light on this topic by looking at the lowlands of NW Ethiopia. Surveys conducted during three field seasons in the Metema and Qwara regions – in the Atbara-Dinder watershed – have allowed us to document different cultural traditions that are related to Sudan in medieval and post-medieval times. Here, we present the data and discuss the relevance of the findings to understand border dynamics from the mid-first millennium AD onwards.La région frontalière entre le Soudan et l’Éthiopie a été témoin d’interactions entre peuples étatiques et non étatiques pendant plus de deux millénaires. Pourtant, on connait très peu de ces interactions d’un point de vue archéologique. Notre projet de recherche vise à clarifier cette problématique dans le cadre d’une exploration des terres basses du nord-ouest éthiopien. Les prospections menées pendant trois saisons aux régions de Metema et Qwara nous ont permis de documenter des différentes traditions culturelles qui sont liées au Soudan médiéval et post-médiéval. Nous présentons ici les données et discutons la relevance de nos trouvailles pour mieux comprendre la dynamique frontalière depuis la moitié du premier millénaire de notre ère.This article is in English.

Affiliations: 1: Incipit-CSIC Avenida de Vigo s.n., 15705, Santiago de CompostelaSpain ; 2: ; 3: Independent Archaeologist


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Abd el‐Rahman M.F. 2007"Gheresli: a post‐Meroitic activity centre in the Blue Nile region" Sudan & NubiaVol 11 104 190
2. Abir M. 1968 Ethiopia. The Era of the Princes Longman London
3. Adams W.Y. 1986 Ceramic Industries of Medieval Nubia University Press of Kentucky Florence, KY
4. Adams W.Y. 2002 Meinarti III: the Late and Terminal Christian Phases Archaeopress Oxford
5. Addison F. 1935"Antiquities at Sennar" Sudan Notes and RecordsVol 18 2 288 293
6. Ahmed A.G.M. 1973"Nomadic competition in the Funj area" Sudan Notes and RecordsVol 54 43 56
7. Ahmed K.A. 1999"Economy and environment in the Empire of Kush" Wenig S. Studien Zum Antiken Sudan Meroitica 15 Otto Harassowitz Wiesbaden 291 311
8. Ahmed K.A., Ahmed S. 2004"Archaeological investigations at Dinder" MeroiticaVol 21 173 190
9. Arkell A.J. 1934"Three burials on Sennar District" Sudan Notes and RecordsVol 17 1 103 110
10. Arkell A.J. 1936"Cambay and the bead trade" The Antiquaries JournalVol 10 292 305
11. Balfour Paul H. 1951"Decorated pipes of the Fung kingdom" Sudan Notes and RecordsVol 32 2 325
12. Balfour Paul H. 1952"Early cultures on the northern Blue Nile" Sudan Notes and RecordsVol 33 2 202 215
13. Bashir M.S., Mohamed M.B., Abdalah M.S. 2012"Rosieres Dam heightening archaeological salvage project. The excavations at Azaza site ROSE 5, preliminary report" Sudan & NubiaVol 16 132 139
14. Baud M., Van Schendel W. 1997"Toward a comparative history of borderlands" Journal of World HistoryVol 8 2 211 242 [Crossref]
15. Brass M. 2015"Interactions and pastoralism along the southern and southeastern frontiers of the Meroitic state, Sudan" Journal of World PrehistoryVol 28 4 255 288 [Crossref]
16. Budka J. 2007"hune2005: The Kirbekan Survey" Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Archaeology of the Fourth Nile Cataract, Berlin, August 4th-6th, 2005 Otto Harrassowitz Wiesbaden 58 72
17. Cartwright C.R. 1999"Reconstructing the woody resources of the medieval Kingdom of Alwa, Sudan" van der Veen M. The Exploitation of Plant Resources in Ancient Africa Kluwer/Plenum New York 241 259 [Crossref]
18. Chappell D.A. 1993"Ethnogenesis and frontiers" Journal of World HistoryVol 4 2 267 275
19. Chattaway J.D.P. 1930"Archaeology in the Southern Sudan. i. – Some ancient sites near Roseires" Sudan Notes and RecordsVol 13 2 259 267
20. Crawford O.G.S. 1951 The Fung Kingdom of Sennar J. Bellows Gloucester
21. Crawford O.G.S., Addison F. 1951 Abu Geili: Saqadi & Dar El Mek Oxford University Press Oxford
22. Dixon D.M. 1963"A Meroitic cemetery at Sennar (Makwar)" KushVol 11 227 234
23. Dombrowski J.C. 1971 Excavations in Ethiopia: Lalibela and Natchabiet Caves, Begemeder Province Unpublished PhD Thesis. Boston University
24. Edwards D.N. 1991"Three cemetery sites on the Blue Nile" Archéologie du Nil MoyenVol 5 41 64
25. Edwards D.N. 1998 Gabati. A Meroitic, Post-Meroitic and Medieval Cemetery in Central SudanVol Volume I Archaeopress Oxford
26. Edwards D.N. 2004 The Nubian Past: An Archaeology of the Sudan Routledge London
27. Eisa K.A., Welsby D.A. 1996"A Soba Ware vessel from the Upper Blue Nile" Beiträge zur SudanforschungVol 6 133 136
28. Elzein I.S. 2004 Islamic Archaeology in the Sudan Archaeopress Oxford
29. Ferguson R.B., Whitehead N.L. 1992 War in the Tribal Zone School of American Research Press Santa Fe, NM
30. Fernández V.M. 2003"Four thousand years in the Blue Nile: Paths to inequality and ways of resistance. Cuatro mil años en el Nilo Azul: Caminos a la desigualdad y vías de resistencia" ComplutumVol 14 409 425
31. Fernández V.M. 2004"Prehistoria y etnoarqueología en el Nilo Azul (Sudán y Etiopía)" Bienes culturales: Revista del Instituto del Patrimonio Histórico EspañolVol 3 119 128
32. Fernández V.M. 2006"The prehistory of the Blue Nile region (Central Sudan and Western Ethiopia)" Kroeper K., Chłodnicki M., Kobusiewicz M. Archaeology of Early Northeastern Africa: In Memory of Lech Krzyżaniak Poznań Archaeological Museum Poznań 65 98
33. Fernández V.M., Jimeno A., Menéndez M., Lario J. 2003"Archaeological survey in the Blue Nile area, Central Sudan" ComplutumVol 14 201 272
34. Fuller D.Q. 2013"Agricultural innovation and state collapse in Meroitic Nubia" Stevens C., Nixon S., Murray M., Fuller D.Q. Archaeology of African Plant Use Left Coast Press Walnut Creek, CA 165 177
35. Gascon A. 1977"Le dangwara, pieu à labourer d’Ethiopie" Journal d’Agriculture Traditionnelle et de Botanique AppliquéeVol 24 2 3 111 124
36. González-Ruibal A. 2014 An Archaeology of Resistance. Materiality and Time in an African Borderland Rowman & Littlefield Lanham, MD
37. González-Ruibal A., Ayán Vila X.M., Derara Worku, Falquina A., Sánchez-Elipe M. 2015"Prospección arqueológica y etnoarqueológica de Metema y Qwara (Etiopía)" Informes y TrabajosVol 12 95 112
38. Gosden C. 2004 Archaeology and Colonialism: Cultural Contact from 5000 BC to the Present Cambridge University Press Cambridge
39. Gwynn C.W. 1901"Surveys on the Proposed Sudan‐Abyssinian Frontier" The Geographical JournalVol 18 6 562 573 [Crossref]
40. Hall T.D. 2000"Frontiers, ethnogenesis, and world-systems: Rethinking the theories" Hall T.D. A World-Systems Reader: New Perspectives on Gender, Urbanism, Cultures, Indigenous Peoples, and Ecology Rowman & Littlefield Lanham, MD 237 270
41. Holt P.M., Daly M.W. 2000 A History of the Sudan: From the Coming of Islam to the Present Day Pearson Education Harlow
42. James W. 1971"Social assimilation and changing identity in the Southern Funj" Hassan Y.F. Sudan in Africa Khartoum University Press Khartoum 197 211
43. James W. 1977"The Funj mystique: Approaches to a problem of Sudan history" Jain R.K. Text and Context. The Social Anthropology of Tradition ISHI Philadelphia 95 133
44. James W. 1979 ‘Kwanim Pa: The Making of the Uduk People. An Ethnographic Study of Survival in the Sudan-Ethiopian Borderlands Clarendon Press Oxford
45. Jȩdrej M.C. 1995 Ingessana: the Religious Institutions of a People of the Sudan‐Ethiopia Borderland Brill Amsterdam
46. Jȩdrej M.C. 2006"Were Nuba and Hadjeray stateless societies? Ethnohistorical problems in the eastern Sudan region of Africa" PaideumaVol 52 205 225
47. Kapteijns L., Spaulding J. 1982"Precolonial trade between states in the eastern Sudan, ca 1700-ca 1900" African Economic HistoryVol 11 29 62 [Crossref]
48. Klose J. 2007 Identifying Ceramics: An Introduction to the Analysis and Interpretation of Ceramics Excavated from 17th to 20th century Archaeological Sites and Shipwrecks in the South-Western Cape University of Cape Town Cape Town
49. Kopytoff I. 1987 The African Frontier: The Reproduction of Traditional African Societies Indiana University Press Bloomington
50. Lightfoot K.G., Martinez A. 1995"Frontiers and boundaries in archaeological perspective" Annual Review of AnthropologyVol 24 471 492 [Crossref]
51. Markakis J. 2011 Ethiopia: The Last Two Frontiers James Currey Woodbridge
52. McCann E. 2004"An Interim Report on Excavations in the ucl‐sars Concession, Northern Sudan, Winter 2003/2004" Papers from the Institute of ArchaeologyVol 15 90 97 [Crossref]
53. McCann J.C. 1990"A Dura revolution and frontier agriculture in Northwest Ethiopia, 1898-1920" The Journal of African HistoryVol 31 1 121 134 [Crossref]
54. McIntosh S.K. 1999"Pathways to complexity: An African perspective" McIntosh S.K. Beyond Chiefdoms: Pathways to Complexity in Africa Cambridge University Press Cambridge 1 30 [Crossref]
55. Näser C. 2004"The small finds" Shinnie P.L., Anderson J.R. The Capital of Kush 2: Meroë Excavations 1973-1984 Meroitica 20 Otto Harrassowitz Wiesbaden 215 349
56. O’Fahey R.S., Spaulding J.L. 1974 Kingdoms of the Sudan. Methuen London
57. Osman E.I. 2009"The Funj region pastoral Fulbe: From ‘Exit’ to ‘Voice’" Nomadic PeoplesVol 13 1 92 112 [Crossref]
58. Pankhurst R. 1997 The Ethiopian Borderlands: Essays in Regional History from Ancient Times to the End of the 18th Century The Red Sea Press Lawrenceville, NJ/Asmara
59. Phillips J. 2004"Islamic pottery in the Middle Nile" Azania. Journal of the British Institute in Eastern AfricaVol 39 1 58 68
60. Phillipson D.W. 2012 Foundations of an African Civilisation: Aksum & the Northern Horn, 1000 BC-1300 AD James Currey/Boydell & Brewer Woodbridge
61. Rossetti C. 1910"Una punta in Etiopia dalle frontiere del Sudan" Bolletino della Società Geografica ItalianaVol 2 955 985
62. Schlee G. 2012 Pastoralism in Interaction with other Forms of Land Use in the Blue Nile Area of Sudan. Project Outline and Field Notes 2009-10. Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology Halle
63. Sidebotham S., Thomas R.I., Harrell I.A. 2008"The el Kab and Nuri-Hamdam/Fourth Cataract survey, January 2006" Godlewski W., Łajtar A. Between the Cataracts. Proceedings of the 11th Conference for Nubian Studies Warsaw University Press Warsaw 107 140
64. Spaulding J.L. 1974"The Fate of Alodia" Transafrican Journal of HistoryVol 4 1/2 26 40
65. Spaulding J. 1980"Toward a demystification of the Funj: Some perspectives on society in Southern Sennar, 1685-1900" Northeast African StudiesVol 2 1 1 18
66. Torres J. de 2017"Sherds of a Kingdom: Historical Pottery of the Lake Tana Region (Northern Ethiopia)" African Archaeological ReviewVol 34 2 225 248 [Crossref]
67. Triulzi A. 1981 Salt, Gold, and Legitimacy: Prelude to the History of a No-Man’s Land, Belā Shangul, Wallaggā, Ethiopia (ca. 1800-1898) Istituto Universitario Orientale Naples
68. Tsega Endalew 2006 Inter-Ethnic Relations on a Frontier: Mätakkäl (Ethiopia), 1898-1991 Otto Harrassowitz Wiesbaden
69. Welsby D.A. 1998 Soba II: Renewed Excavations within the Metropolis of the Kingdom of Alwa in Central Sudan British Museum Press London
70. Welsby D., Daniels C.M. 1991 Soba. Archaeological Research at a Medieval Capital on the Blue Nile The British Institute in Eastern Africa London
71. Wolf P., Nowotnick U. 2005"The second season of the sars Anglo‐German Expedition to the Fourth Cataract" Sudan & NubiaVol 9 23 31
72. Wynne-Jones S., Fleisher J.B. 2015"Theory in Africa: Africa in theory" Wynne-Jones S., Fleisher J.B. Theory in Africa, Africa in Theory: Locating Meaning in Archaeology Routledge London 3 18
73. Ylimaunu T., Lakomäki S., Kallio-Seppä T., Mullins P.R., Nurmi R., Kuorilehto M. 2014"Borderlands as spaces: Creating third spaces and fractured landscapes in medieval Northern Finland" Journal of Social ArchaeologyVol 14 2 244 267 [Crossref]

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Journal of African Archaeology — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation