Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Tokhtogo’s Mission Impossible

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

Russia, China, and the Quasi-independence of Hulunbeir

image of Inner Asia

By the turn of the twentieth century, the Qing court sought to incorporate and homogenise its imperial periphery. This shift towards firmer control of its Mongolian borderlands with neighbouring Russia elicited anti-imperial sentiments among the indigenous population. Complexities arose when the Russian government sought to utilise native separationist movements for the promotion of its own political ends: more precisely, to create a loyal autochthonous buffer at the poorly defended border. The article examines resistance by the nomadic borderlanders against the sovereignty claims of the state, arguing that the rejection of the state provoked a surge of both local and national identity formation along the border. It analyses nomads’ reactions to the Manchu court’s imperial policies, Russian exploitation of indigenous dissatisfaction, and the question of whether the native borderlanders, in the early twentieth century, gained independence or were subjugated by different means.

Affiliations: 1: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Mü


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Ablova N.E. " KVZhD i rossiiskaia emigratsiia v Kitae. Mezhdunarodnye i politicheskie aspekty istorii (pervaia polovina xxveka) " [The Chinese Eastern Railway and Russian emigration into China. International and political aspects of the history (during the first half of the twentieth century)] 2005 Moscow Russkaia Panorama
2. Atwood C.P. Young Mongols and Vigilantes in Inner Mongolia’s Interregnum Decades 1911–1931 2002 Leiden Brill 2 vols.
3. Atwood C.P. "State Service, Lineage and Locality in Hulun Buir" East Asian History 2005 Vol 30 5 22
4. Baranov A. " Barga[Barga region]" 1912 Harbin Tipo-litogr. Zaamurskogo Okruga Otdel’nogo Korpusa Pogran. Strazhi
5. Baranov A. Khalkha. Aimak Tsetsen-khana [Khalkha. Tsetsen Khan aimag] 1919 Harbin Tipo-litografiia Okhrannoi Strazhi Kit. Vost. zh. d.
6. Baranov I.G. "Administrativnoe ustroistvo Severnoi Man’chzhurii" [Administrative Structure of Northern Manchuria] Vestnik Man’chzhurii [Manchuria Herald] 1926 11–12 5 26
7. Bulag U.E. Esherick , Kayali , Young Van "Going Imperial. Tibeto-Mongolian Buddhism and Nationalisms in China and Inner Asia" 2006 260 295
8. Cui Guangyu Haila’er fengyun lu (1732–1932 nian) [A Record of Hailar (1732–1932)] 2000 Vol vol. 1 Hailar Neimenggu Wenhua Chubanshe
9. Denisov V.I. Rossiia na Dal’nem Vostoke [The Russian Far East] 1913 N.p.
10. Elleman B.A. "Secret Sino-Soviet Negotiations on Outer Mongolia, 1918–1925" Pacific Affairs 1993 Vol 68 4 539 563
11. Esherick J.W. Esherick , et al "How the Qing became China" 2006 229 259
12. Esherick J.W. , Kayali H. , van Young E. Empire to Nation: Historical Perspectives on the Making of the Modern World 2006 Lanham (MD) Rowman & Littlefield
13. ‘Hulunbei’er gaiyao’ [‘A summary of Hulunbeir’] Zhongguo bianjiang shizhi jicheng. Neimenggu shizhi [Chronicles of Chinese frontier integration. Annals of Inner Mongolia] [1930] 2002 Vol vol. 41 Beijing n.p.
14. Ichiko C. Fairbank J. , Liu K. "Political and institutional reform, 1901–11" The Cambridge History of China 1980 Vol vol. 11 pt 2 Cambridge Cambridge University Press 375 415
15. Kormazov V.A. Barga. Ekonomicheskii ocherk [Barga. An Economic Survey] 1928 Harbin Tipografiia Kitaiskoi Vostochnoi zheleznoi dorogi
16. Kornakova A.D. "Po povodu provozglasheniia mongolami nezavisimosti" [Concerning proclamation of independence by the Mongols] Trudy Troitskosavodsko-Kiakhtinskogo Otdeleniia Priamurskogo Otdela Imperatorskogo Russkogo Geograficheskogo Obshchestva [Proceedings of Troitskosavodsk-Kiakhta Division of the Priamursk Department of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society] 1913 Vol vol. 15 2 St Petersburg Senatskaia Tipografiia
17. Kotkin S. , Elleman B. Mongolia in the twentieth century. Landlocked cosmopolitan 1999 Armonk (NY) M.E. Sharpe
18. Lan Mei-hua "The Mongolian Independence Movement of 1911" A Pan-Mongolian Endeavor 1996 Harvard University, USA Ph.D. Dissertation
19. Lan Mei-hua Kotkin , Elleman "China’s ‘New Administration’ in Mongolia" 1999 39 58
20. Lattimore O. "The Historical Setting of Inner Mongolian Nationalism" Pacific Affairs 1936 Vol 9 3 388 405
21. Lattimore O. The Mongols of Manchuria 1969 New York Howard Fertig
22. Martynov E.I. Rabota nashikh zheleznodorozhnykh del’tsov v Man’chzhurii [The performance of our railway businessmen in Manchuria] 1914 Moscow n.p.
23. Men’shikov P.N. "Kratkii istoricheskii ocherk Man’chzhurii" [Brief Historical Review of Manchuria] Vestnik Azii [Asia Herald] 1917 Vol 9 42 27 44
24. Meshcherskii A. Avtonomnaia Barga (Mongol’skaia Ekspeditsiia po zagotovke miasa dlia deistvuiushchikh armii. Vladivostoksko-Man’chzhurskii raion. Materialy k otchetu o deiatel’nosti s 1915 po 1918 g.g. [Autonomous Barga (Mongolian Expedition for the Preparation of Meat for the Active Army. Region Vladivostok-Manchuria. Proceedings of the activities in 1915–1918)] 1920 Vol vol. 12 Shanghai Tipografiia ‘Russkogo Kinoizdatel’stva’ appendix 3
25. Mongoliia Vestnik Azii [Asia Herald] 1913 February Vol 4 14 12 16 1913
26. Mongoliia Vestnik Azii [Asia Herald] 1915 Vol nos. 35–36 112 119 1915
27. Nakami T. Kotkin , Elleman "Russian Diplomats and Mongol Independence, 1911–1915" 1999 69 78
28. Orlov N. Zabaikal’tsy v Man’chzhurii v 1900 g. Ocherki iz pokhoda Khailarskogo Otriada Generala N. A. Orlova v Kitai v 1900 g. [Transbaikalians in Manchuria in 1900. Sketches from the campaign of the Hailar Corps of General N.A. Orlov to China in 1900] 1901 St Petersburg n.p.
29. Paine S.C.M. Imperial Rivals. China, Russia, and Their Disputed Frontier 1996 Armonk (NY) M.E. Sharpe
30. Rupen R.A. "The Buriat Intelligentsia" The Far Eastern Quarterly 1956 Vol 15 3 383 398
31. Shao Dan Remote Homeland, Recovered Borderland. Manchus, Manchoukuo, and Manchuria, 1907–1985 2011 Honolulu (HI) University of Hawaii Press
32. Tang P.S.H. Russian and Soviet Policy in Manchuria and Outer Mongolia 1959 Durham (NC) Duke University Press
33. Urbansky S. Kolonialer Wettstreit. Russland, China, Japan und die Ostchinesische Eisenbahn 2008 Frankfurt a. M. Campus
34. Wolff D. To the Harbin Station. The Liberal Alternative in Russian Manchuria, 1898–1914 1999 Stanford (CA) Stanford University Press
35. Woodhead H.G.W. The China Year Book 1914 London George Routledge & Sons

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Inner Asia — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation