Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

A re-appraisal of Gegenes Hübner, 1819 (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae) based on male and female genitalia, with the description of a new genus, Afrogegenes

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Tijdschrift voor Entomologie

Examination of male and female genitalia as well as external characters of all species of the current genus Gegenes Hübner, 1819 (Hesperiidae, Lepidoptera) led to the observation that two well-marked groups can be distinguished, differing in external characters as well as in male and female genitalia. For one of the two groups a new genus is erected, Afrogegenes. Conventionally, the group for which the new genus is erected contains two species, Gegenes letterstedti (Wallengren, 1857) and G. hottentota (Latreille, 1823), but G. hottentota ocraEvans, 1937, has been given full species rank here, raising the number of species in Afrogegenes to three. G. letterstedti has long been known in the literature as G. niso (Linnaeus, 1764), but this is based on an incorrect lectotype designation. Male and female genitalia are described and figured for all taxa, in some cases for the first time.


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Aguiar C.,, Araujo M. B.,, Garcfa-Barros Saura E.,, García-Pereira P.,, Grosso-Silva J. M.,, Honrado J.,, Maravalhas E.,, Meyer M.,, Miralto M. A.,, Samways M. J. & T. Schmitt, 2003. Hesperiidae. — In: E. Maravalhas (Ed.), As Borboletas de Portugal, pp. 173–190. Venlo Norte, Porto, Portugal.
2. Aurivillius P.O.C., 1882. Recensio critica Lepidopterorum Musei Ludovicae Ulricae quae descripsit Carolus a Linné. — Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar 19(5): 1–188, 1 pl.
3. Benyamini D., 1984. "The butterflies of the Sinai peninsula (Lep. Rhopalocera)". — Nota Lepidopterologica 7: 309–321.
4. Benyamini D., 1997. "A field guide to the butterflies of Israel. — Keter Publishing House Ltd", 234 pp., 139 pls.
5. Butler A.G., 1870. "The genera of Hesperidae in the collection of the British Museum". — Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 7: 55–58, 92–99.
6. Butler A.G., 1881. "On the butterflies collected in Socotra by Prof. I.B. Balfour". — Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1881: 175–180.
7. Cock M.J.W., & Congdon T.C.E., 2012. "Observations on the biology of Afrotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera) principally from Kenya". Part 4. Hesperiinae: Aeromachini and Baorini. — Zootaxa 3438: 1–42.
8. Coutsis J.G., 2012. "A comparison between the female genitalia of Gegenes pumilio and those of G. nostrodamus (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea)". — Phegea 40: 39–40.
9. Coutsis J.G., & Olivier A., 1993. Confirmation of the presence of both Gegenes pumilio pumilio (Hofmannsegg, 1804) and Gegenes nostrodamus (Fabricius, 1793) on the Greek island of Kriti (Crete) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). — Phegea 21: 101–107.
10. Cuvelier S., 2014. The butterflies and skippers of the North-Aegean Islands of Híos, Psará and Lésvos (Greece). New observations and an update on their distribution (Papilonoidea & Hesperioidea). — Phegea 42: 58–70.
11. De Jong R., 1976. Affinities between the West Palaearctic and Ethiopian butterfly faunas. — Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 119: 165–215.
12. De Jong R., 2004. Phylogeny and biogeography of the genus Taractrocera Butler, 1870 (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae), an example of Southeast Asian-Australian interchange. — Zoologische Mededelingen Leiden 78: 383–415.
13. De Lesse H., 1960. Spéciation et variation chromosomique chez les Lépidoptères Rhopalocères. — Annales des Sciences Naturelles (Ser. 12) 2: 1–223. [Thesis, Université de Paris, France].
14. De Lesse H., 1967. Formules chromosomiques de Lépidoptères Rhopalocères de l’Afrique du Nord. — Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de FranceVol 72: 2025.
15. Dickson C.G.C., & Kroon D.M. (Eds), 1978. Pennington’s butterflies of southern Africa, 1st ed. — Ad. Donker, Johannesburg, South Africa, 670 pp.
16. Evans W.H., 1937. A catalogue of the African Hesperiidae indicating the classification and nomenclature adopted in the British Museum. — Trustees of the British Museum, London, UK, xii + 212 pp., 30 pls.
17. Evans W.H., 1946. LXI. — Revisional notes on African Hesperiidae. — Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Ser. 11) 13: 641–648.
18. Evans W.H., 1949. A catalogue of the Hesperiidae from Europe, Asia and Australia in the British Museum (Natural History). — Trustees of the British Museum, London, UK, xix + 502 pp., 52 pls.
19. Fan X.,, Chiba H.,, Huang Z.,, Fei W. & M. Wang, 2016. Clarification of the phylogenetic framework of the tribe Baorini (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae) inferred from multiple gene sequences. – PLoS One 11: e0156861. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.015861.g001.
20. Fric Z., 2005. Colotis evagore (Klug, 1829) advancing northward in Spain (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). — SHILAP Revista de Lepidopterología 33: 169–171.
21. García-Barros E.,, Munguira M.L.,, Stefanescu C., A. Vives Moreno & G. Lamas, 2013. Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea. — In: M.A. Ramos, J. Alba, X. Belles, J. Gosalbez, A. Guerra, E. Macpherson, J. Serrano & X. Templado (Eds), Fauna Iberica, Vol. 37, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Madrid, Spain, 1213 pp.
22. Henning G.A.,, Henning S.F.,, Joannou J.G. & S.E. Woodhall, 1997. Living butterflies of Southern Africa. Biology, ecology, conservation. Vol. 1: Hesperiidae, Papilionidae and Pieridae of South Africa. — Umdaus Press, Hatfield, South Africa, 397 pp.
23. Hesselbarth G.,, Van Oorschot H. & S. Wagener, 1995. Die Tagfalter der Türkei unter Berücksichtigung der angrenzenden Länder. — Bd 1: 754 pp., Bd 2: 595 pp., Bd 3: 847 pp., 140 pls, iv + 342 maps. Selbstverlag S. Wagener, Bocholt, Germany.
24. Holland W.J., 1896. "A preliminary revision and synonymic catalogue of the Hesperiidae of Africa and the adjacent islands, with descriptions of some apparently new species". — Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1896: 2–107, pls I–V.
25. Honey M.R., & Scoble M.J., 2001. Linnaeus’s butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea). — Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society 132: 277–399.
26. Hübner, J., 1819. Verzeichniss bekannter Schmettlinge [sic!]. — Verfasser, Augsburg, Germany, 431 + 72 pp.
27. Kielland J., 1990. Butterflies of Tanzania. — Hill House, London, UK, 363 pp., 68 pls, 179 genitalia figs.
28. Kroon D.M., 1973. Notes on Southern African Rhopalocera (Lepidoptera). — Entomologist’s Record and Journal of Variation 85: 57–58.
29. Kudrna O.,, Harpke A.,, Lux K.,, Pennerstorfer J.,, Schweiger O.,, Settele J. & M. Wiemers, 2011. Distribution atlas of butterflies in Europe. — Gesellschaft für Schmetterlingsschutz e.V., Halle, Germany, 576 pp.
30. Kuijten P.J., 1974 [1973]. On the occurrence of a hitherto unknown wing-thorax coupling mechanism in Lepidoptera. — Netherlands Journal of Zoology 24: 317–322.
31. Lafranchis T., 2000. Les papillons de jour de France, Belgique et Luxembourg et leur chenilles. — Collection Parthénope, Éditions Biotope, Mèze, France, 448 pp.
32. Larsen T.B., 1974. Butterflies of Lebanon. — National Council for Scientific Research, Beirut:, Lebanon, xv + 256 pp., 16 pls.
33. Larsen, T.B., 1980. The butterflies of Dhofar and their zoogeographic distribution. — Journal Oman Studies, Special Report 2: 153–186.
34. Larsen T.B., 1982a. Gegenes pumilio Hoffmansegg, 1804; a review with cytological evidence that two species are involved (Hesperiidae). — Nota Lepidopterologica 5: 103–110.
35. Larsen T.B., 1982b. The butterflies of the Yemen Arab Republic. With a review of species in the Charaxes viola-group from Arabia and East Africa, by A.H.B. Rydon. — Biologiske Skrifter, Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes SelskabVol 23: 187.
36. Larsen T.B., 1983. Insects of Saudi Arabia. Lepidoptera; Rhopalocera (A monograph of the butterflies of the Arabian Peninsula). — Fauna of Saudi Arabia 5: 333–478.
37. Larsen T.B., 1984. Butterflies of Saudi Arabia and its neighbours. — Stacey International, London, UK, 160 pp., 23 pls.
38. Larsen T.B., 1990. The Butterflies of Egypt. — Apollo Books, Stenstrup, Denmark, 112 pp., 8 pls.
39. Larsen T.B., 1991. The Butterflies of Kenya. — Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, xxii + 490 pp., 64 pls.
40. Larsen T.B., 2004. Butterflies of Bangladesh — an annotated checklist. — IUCN, Bangladesh, 158 pp., 13 pls.
41. Larsen T.B., 2005. Butterflies of West Africa. — Apollo Books, Stenstrup, Denmark, 595 pp., 125 pls.
42. Larsen, T.B. & K. Larsen, 1980. Butterflies of Oman. — Bartholomew Books, Edinburgh, UK.Linnaeus, C., 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio Decima, reformata. 1 (Animalia). — Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae, [Sweden].
43. Linnaeus C., 1764. Museum Ludovicae Ulricae Reginae Suecorum. Insecta & Conchilia. — Laur. Salvius, Stockholm, Sweden, 720 pp.
44. Linnaeus C., 1767. Systema naturae. Editio XII. — Laur. Salvius, Stockholm, Sweden, Pars II: 5331328.
45. Lorkovic´ Z., 1971. Gegenes nostrodamus F. and G. pumilio Hffgg. on the eastern Adriatic coast. — Acta Entomologica Jugoslavica 7: 56.
46. Makris C., 2003. Butterflies of Cyprus. — Bank of Cyprus Cultural Foundation, Nikosia, Cyprus, 329 pp., 53 pls.
47. Nazari V., 2003. Butterflies of Iran. — National Museum of Natural History, Teheran, 400 pp., 74 pls.
48. Pamperis L.N., 2009. The butterflies of Greece, 2nd ed. — Editions Pamperis, Athens, Greece, 766 pp.
49. Plötz C., 1884. Die Hesperiinen-Gattung Thymelicus Hüb. und ihre Arten. — Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 31: 284–290.
50. Pringle E.L.L., G.A. Henning & J.B. Ball (Eds), 1994. Pennington’s butterflies of southern Africa, 2nd ed. — Struik Winchester, Cape Town, South Africa, 800 pp.
51. Rebel H., 1907. Lepidopteren aus Südarabien und von der Insel Sokotra. — Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe, 71/2: 1–100.
52. Rebel H., & Zerny H., 1931. Die Lepidopterenfauna Albaniens (mit Berücksichtigung der Nachbargebiete). — Denkschriften der Akademie der Wissenschaften Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse 103: 37–161.
53. Roberts T.J., 2001. The Butterflies of Pakistan. — Oxford University Press, Karachi, Pakistan, xxiv + 200 pp.
54. Sakai S., 1981. Butterflies of Afghanistan. — Koudansha, Tokyo, Japan, 272 pp., 48 pls. [in Japanese]
55. Schaider P., & Jakšic´ P., 1989. Die Tagfalter von jugoslawisch Mazedonien (Rhopalocera und Hesperidae). — Selbstverlag Paul Schaider, München, Germany, 82 pp., 46 pls, 199 distribution maps.
56. Tennent J., 1996. The Butterflies of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. — Gem Publishing Company, Wallingford, UK, xxxvi + 217 pp.
57. Thurner J., 1964. Die Lepidopterenfauna Jugoslavisch Mazedoniens. 1. Rhopalocera, Grypocera und Noctuidae. — Prirodonaucen Muzej Scopje, 158 pp.
58. Tshikolovets V.V., 1998. The Butterflies of Turkmenistan. — Konvoj Ltd, Brno, Czech Republic, 237 pp., xxxiv pls.
59. Tshikolovets V.V., 2000. The Butterflies of Uzbekistan. — Konvoj Ltd, Brno, Czech Republic, 400 pp., xliii pls.
60. Tshikolovets V.V., 2003. The Butterflies of Tajikistan. — Konvoj Ltd, Brno, Czech Republic, 500 pp., 3 + lxxvii pls.
61. Tshikolovets V.V., 2005. The Butterflies of Kyrgyzstan. — Tshikolovets Publications, Pardubice, Czech Republic, 511 pp., pls 4 + cviii pls.
62. Tshikolovets V.V., 2011. Butterflies of Europe and the Mediterranean area. — Tshikolovets Publications, Pardubice, Czech Republic, 544 pp.
63. Tshikolovets V.V.,, Naderi A., & Eckweiler W., 2014. The Butterflies of Iran and Iraq. — Tshikolovets Publications, Pardubice, Czech Republic, 366 pp., 7 + lxv pls.
64. Vande weghe, G.R., 2010. Papillons du Gabon. — Wildlife Conservation Society, Libreville, 424 pp., 132 pls.
65. Verovnik R., & Popovic´ M., 2013. Annotated checklist of Albanian butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea). — ZooKeys 323: 75–89.
66. Verity R., 1940. Le Farfalle Diurne d’ltalia, Vol. 1, Considerazioni generali. Superfamiglia Hesperides. — Marzocco, Firenze, Italy, xxxiv + 131 pp., frontispiece + ii + 4 pls.
67. Wallengren H.D.J., 1857. Kafferlandets Tag-Fjärilar, insamlade aren 1838–1845 af J.A. Wahlberg. – Kungliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens HandlingarVol B2(4): 555.
68. Warren A.D.,, Ogawa J.R., & Brower A.V.Z., 2009. Revised classification of the family Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea) based on combined molecular and morphological data. — Systematic Entomology 34: 467–523.
69. Watson E.Y., 1893. A proposed classification of the Hesperiidae, with a revision of the genera. — Proceedings Zoological Society London 1893: 3–132, pls I–III.
70. Wiltshire E.P., 1957. The Lepidoptera of Iraq. — Nicholas Kaye Ltd, London, UK, 162 pp., xvii pls.

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Tijdschrift voor Entomologie — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation