Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

The Subjective Present and Its Modulation in Clinical Contexts

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Timing & Time Perception

Time is a basic dimension in psychology, underlying behavior and experience. Timing and time perception constitute implicit processes that are often inaccessible to the individual person. Research in this field has shown that timing is involved in many areas of clinical significance. In the projects presented here, we combine timing with seemingly different fields of research, such as psychopathology, perceptual grouping, and embodied cognition. Focusing on the time scale of the subjective present, we report findings from three different clinical studies: (1) We studied perceived causality in schizophrenia patients, finding that perceptual grouping (‘binding’, ‘Gestalt formation’), which leads to visual causality perceptions, did not distinguish between patients and healthy controls. Patients however did integrate context (provided by the temporal distribution of auditory context stimuli) less into perceptions, in significant contrast to controls. This is consistent with reports of higher inaccuracy in schizophrenia patients’ temporal processing. (2) In a project on auditory Gestalt perception we investigated auditory perceptual grouping in schizophrenia patients. The mean dwell time was positively related to how much patients were prone to auditory hallucinations. Dwell times of auditory Gestalts may be regarded as operationalizations of the subjective present; findings thus suggested that patients with hallucinations had a shorter present. (3) The movement correlations of interacting individuals were used to study the non-verbal synchrony between therapist and patient in psychotherapy sessions. We operationalized the duration of an embodied ‘social present’ by the statistical significance of such associations, finding a window of roughly 5.7 seconds in conversing dyads.We discuss that temporal scales of nowness may be modifiable, e.g., by mindfulness. This yields promising goals for future research on timing in the clinical context: psychotherapeutic techniques may alter binding processes, hence the subjective present of individuals, and may affect the social present in therapeutic interactions.

Affiliations: 1: University Hospital of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Bern, Laupenstrasse 49, 3010 Bern, Switzerland


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Atmanspacher H. , Filk T. ( 2010). "A proposed test of temporal nonlocality in bistable perception". J. Math. Psychol., Vol 54, 314321.
2. Bergomi C. , Tschacher W. , Kupper Z. ( 2013). "Measuring mindfulness: First steps towards a comprehensive mindfulness scale". Mindfulness, Vol 4, 1832.
3. Bergson H. ( 1922). Durée et simultanéité. A propos de la théorie d’Einstein. Paris: Alcan.
4. Bonnot O. , Montalembert M. D. , Kermarrec S. , Botbol M. , Walter M. , Coulon N. ( 2011). "Are impairments of time perception in schizophrenia a neglected phenomenon?" J. Physiol., Vol 105, 164169.
5. Bregman A. S. ( 1990). Auditory scene analysis. Cambridge: MIT Press.
6. Bschor T. , Ising M. , Bauer M. , Lewitzka U. , Skerstupeit M. , Müller-Oerlinghausen B. , et al , ( 2004). "Time experience and time judgment in major depression, mania and healthy subjects. A controlled study of 93 subjects". Acta Psychiat. Scand., Vol 109, 222229.
7. Delevoye-Turrell Y. , Wilquin H. , Giersch A. ( 2012). "A ticking clock for the production of sequential actions: Where does the problem lie in schizophrenia?" Schizophr. Res., Vol 135, 5154.
8. Deutsch D. ( 1999). "Grouping mechanisms in music". Psychol. Music, Vol 28, 184248.
9. Droit-Volet S. , Meck W. H. ( 2007). "How emotions colour our perception of time". Trends Cogn. Sci., Vol 11, 504513.
10. Effron D. A. , Niedenthal P. M. , Gil S. , Droit-Volet S. ( 2006). "Embodied temporal perception of emotion". Emotion, Vol 6, 19.
11. Elliott M. A. , Shanagher L. ( 2010). "Temporal event-structure coding in developmental dyslexia: Evidence from explicit and implicit temporal processing". Psihologija, Vol 43, 373387.
12. Elvevåg B. , McCormack T. , Gilbert A. , Brown G. D. , Weinberger D. R. , Goldberg T. E. ( 2003). "Duration judgments in patients with schizophrenia". Psychol. Med., Vol 33, 12491261.
13. Fraisse P. ( 1984). "Perception and estimation of time". Annu. Rev. Psychol., Vol 35, 136.
14. Franck G. , Atmanspacher H. ( 2009). "A proposed relation between intensity of presence and duration of nowness". In Atmanspacher H. , Primas H. (Eds.), Recasting reality(pp.  211225). Berlin: Springer.
15. Fuchs T. , Schlimme J. E. ( 2009). "Embodiment and psychopathology: A phenomenological perspective". Curr. Opin. Psychiatry, Vol 22, 570575.
16. Giersch A. , Lalanne L. , Corves C. , Seubert J. , Shi Z. , Foucher J. , et al , ( 2009). "Extended visual simultaneity thresholds in patients with schizophrenia". Schizophr. Bull. (Bp), Vol 35, 816825.
17. Grammer K. , Honda R. , Schmitt A. , Jütte A. ( 1999). "Fuzziness of nonverbal courtship communication unblurred by motion energy detection". J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., Vol 77, 487508.
18. Haddock G. , McCarron J. , Tarrier N. , Faragher E. B. ( 1999). "Scales to measure dimensions of hallucinations and delusions: the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS)". J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., Vol 77, 879889.
19. Haddock G. , Slade P. D. , Bentall R. P. ( 1995). "Auditory hallucinations and the verbal transformation effect: The role of suggestions". Pers. Individ. Dif., Vol 19, 301306.
20. Haken H. ( 1977). Synergetics — an introduction. Nonequilibrium phase-transitions and self-organization in physics, chemistry and biology. Berlin: Springer.
21. Hayes S. C. ( 2004). "Acceptance and commitment therapy, relational frame theory, and the third wave of behavior therapy". Behav. Ther., Vol 35, 639665.
22. Helson H. ( 1933). "The fundamental propositions of Gestalt psychology". Psychol. Rev., Vol 40, 1332.
23. James W. ( 1890). Principles of psychology. New York: Holt.
24. Kay S. R. , Fiszbein A. , Opler L. A. ( 1987). "The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia". Schizophr. Bull. (Bp), Vol 13, 261.
25. Köhler W. ( 1947). Gestalt psychology: An introduction to new concepts in modern psychology. New York: Liveright.
26. Kupper Z. , Ramseyer F. , Hoffmann H. , Kalbermatten S. , Tschacher W. ( 2010). "Video-based quantification of body movement during social interaction indicates the severity of negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia". Schizophr. Res., Vol 121, 90100.
27. Lee K. H. , Bhaker R. S. , Mysore A. , Parks R. W. , Birkett P. B. , Woodruff P. W. ( 2009). "Time perception and its neuropsychological correlates in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy volunteers". Psychiatry Res., Vol 166, 174183.
28. Lindenmayer J. P. , Grochowski S. , Hyman R. B. ( 1995). "Five factor model of schizophrenia: replication across samples". Schizophr. Res., Vol 14, 229234.
29. Linehan M. ( 1993). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder. New York: The Guilford Press.
30. Ludwig D. S. , Kabat-Zinn J. ( 2008). "Mindfulness in medicine". JAMA, Vol 300, 13501352.
31. Mahlberg R. , Kienast T. , Bschor T. , Adli M. ( 2008). "Evaluation of time memory in acutely depressed patients, manic patients, and healthy controls using a time reproduction task". Eur. Psychiatry, Vol 23, 430433.
32. Metzger W. ( 1933). "Beobachtungen über phänomenale Identität". Psychol. Forsch., Vol 19, 160.
33. Pfammatter M. , Tschacher W. ( 2012). "Wirkfaktoren der Psychotherapie — eine Übersicht und Standortbestimmung". Schizophr. Bull. (Bp), Vol 60, 1731.
34. Pitt M. A. , Shoaf L. ( 2002). "Linking verbal transformations to their causes". J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform., Vol 28, 150.
35. Pöppel E. ( 1997). "A hierarchical model of temporal perception". Trends Cogn. Sci., Vol 1, 5661.
36. Pöppel E. ( 2009). "Pre-semantically defined temporal windows for cognitive processing". Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci., Vol 364, 18871896.
37. Ramseyer F. , Tschacher W. ( 2006). "Synchrony. A core concept for a constructivist approach to psychotherapy". Construct. Hum. Sci., Vol 11, 150171.
38. Ramseyer F. , Tschacher W. ( 2010). "Nonverbal synchrony or random coincidence? How to tell the difference". In Esposito A. , Campbell N. , Vogel C. , Hussain A. , Nijholt A. (Eds.), Development of multimodal interfaces: Active listening and synchrony(pp.  182196). Berlin: Springer.
39. Ramseyer F. , Tschacher W. ( 2011). "Nonverbal synchrony in psychotherapy: Coordinated body movement reflects relationship quality and outcome". J. Consult. Clin. Psychol., Vol 79, 284295.
40. Reheis F. ( 2003). Entschleunigung: Abschied vom Turbokapitalismus. München: Riemann.
41. Reidsma D. , Nijholt A. , Tschacher W. , Ramseyer F. ( 2010). "Measuring multimodal synchrony for human–computer interaction". In Sourin A. (Ed.), Proceedings CYBERWORLDS 2010(pp.  6771). IEEE Computer Society Press.
42. Sauer S. , Lemke J. , Wittmann M. , Kohls N. , Mochty U. , Walach H. ( 2012). "How long is now for mindfulness meditators?" Pers. Individ. Dif., Vol 52, 750754.
43. Schmidt H. , McFarland J. , Ahmed M. , McDonald C. , Elliott M. A. ( 2011). "Low-level temporal coding impairments in psychosis: Preliminary findings and recommendations for further studies". J. Abnorm. Psychol., Vol 120, 476482.
44. Slade P. D. ( 1976). "An investigation of psychological factors involved in the predisposition to auditory hallucinations". Psychol. Med., Vol 6, 123132.
45. Stroh W. M. ( 1999). Musikalische Grenzerfahrungen durch Midifiles? Hörpsychologische Experimente im Musikunterricht. Praxis Musikunterricht, 36–43.
46. Teasdale J. D. , Segal Z. V. , Williams J. M. G. ( 2003). "Mindfulness training and problem formulation". Clin. Psychol. (New York), Vol 10, 157160.
47. Tschacher W. ( 2012). Implicit temporal processes in cognition and behavior. Presentation held at the COST action TIMELY training school “Temporal processing in clinical populations”. Thessaloniki, Greece.
48. Tschacher W. , Bergomi C. ( 2011a). "Cognitive binding in schizophrenia: Weakened integration of temporal intersensory information". Schizophr. Bull. (Bp), Vol 37, S13S22.
49. Tschacher W. , Bergomi C. (Eds.) ( 2011b). The implications of embodiment: Cognition and communication. Exeter: Imprint Academic.
50. Tschacher W. , Dauwalder J.-P. (Eds.) ( 2003). The dynamical systems approach to cognition. Singapore: World Scientific.
51. Tschacher W. , Dubouloz P. , Meier R. , Junghan U. ( 2008). "Altered perception of apparent motion in schizophrenia spectrum disorder". Psychiatry Res., Vol 159, 290299.
52. Tschacher W. , Kupper Z. ( 2006). "Perception of causality in schizophrenia spectrum disorder". Schizophr. Bull. (Bp), Vol 32, S106S112.
53. Tschacher W. , Schuler D. , Junghan U. ( 2006). "Reduced perception of the motion-induced blindness illusion in schizophrenia". Schizophr. Res., Vol 81, 261267.
54. van Noorden L. P. A. S. ( 1975). Temporal coherence in the perception of tone sequences. Doctoral dissertation, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven.
55. van Wassenhove V. ( 2009). "Minding time in an amodal representational space". Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci., Vol 364, 18151830.
56. Varela F. , Thompson E. , Rosch E. ( 1991). The embodied mind. Cambridge: MIT Press.
57. Vatakis A. , Papadelis G. ( 2011). "A timely endeavor: Theoretical, behavioral, bioimaging, and clinical perspectives on time perception". In Esposito A. , Esposito A. M. , Martone R. , Müller V. C. , Scarpetta G. (Eds.), Toward autonomous, adaptive, and context-aware multimodal interfaces: Theoretical and practical issues(pp.  34- 38). Berlin: Springer.
58. Wackermann J. , Ehm W. ( 2006). "The dual klepsydra model of internal time representation and time reproduction". J. Theor. Biol., Vol 239, 482493.
59. Warren R. M. ( 1968). "Verbal transformation effect and auditory perceptual mechanisms". Psychol. Bull., Vol 70, 261.
60. Wertheimer M. ( 1912). "Experimentelle Studien über das Sehen von Bewegungen". Z. Psychol., Vol 61, 161265.
61. Wittmann M. ( 2009). "The inner experience of time". Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci., Vol 364, 19551967.
62. Wittmann M. ( 2011). "Moments in time". Front. Integr. Neurosci., Vol 5, 66.

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Timing & Time Perception — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation