Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Open Access Impaired Numerical Ability Affects Supra-Second Time Estimation

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Impaired Numerical Ability Affects Supra-Second Time Estimation

  • HTML
  • PDF
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Timing & Time Perception

It has been suggested that the human ability to process number and time both rely on common magnitude mechanisms, yet for time this commonality has mainly been investigated in the sub-second rather than longer time ranges. Here we examined whether number processing is associated with timing in time ranges greater than a second. Specifically, we tested long duration estimation abilities in adults with a developmental impairment in numerical processing (dyscalculia), reasoning that any such timing impairment co-occurring with dyscalculia may be consistent with joint mechanisms for time estimation and number processing. Dyscalculics and age-matched controls were tested on supra-second temporal estimation (12 s), a difficulty-matched non-temporal control task, as well as mathematical abilities. Consistent with our hypothesis, dyscalculics were significantly impaired in supra-second duration estimation but not in the control task. Furthermore, supra-second timing ability positively correlated with mathematical proficiency. All participants reported that they used counting to estimate time, although no specific instructions were given with respect to counting. These results suggest that numerical processing and supra-second temporal estimation share common mechanisms. However, since this conclusion is also based on subjective observations, further work needs to be done to determine whether mathematical impairment co-occurs with supra-second time estimation impairment when counting is not involved in and is objectively controlled for during supra-second timing. We hypothesize that counting, that does not develop normally in dyscalculics, might underlie and adversely affect dyscalculics’ supra-second time estimation performance, rather than an impairment of a magnitude mechanism or the internal clock pacemaker.

Affiliations: 1: 1UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17 Queen Square, London, WC1N 3AR, UK

10.1163/22134468-00002026
/content/journals/10.1163/22134468-00002026
dcterms_title,pub_keyword,dcterms_description,pub_author
10
5
Loading

It has been suggested that the human ability to process number and time both rely on common magnitude mechanisms, yet for time this commonality has mainly been investigated in the sub-second rather than longer time ranges. Here we examined whether number processing is associated with timing in time ranges greater than a second. Specifically, we tested long duration estimation abilities in adults with a developmental impairment in numerical processing (dyscalculia), reasoning that any such timing impairment co-occurring with dyscalculia may be consistent with joint mechanisms for time estimation and number processing. Dyscalculics and age-matched controls were tested on supra-second temporal estimation (12 s), a difficulty-matched non-temporal control task, as well as mathematical abilities. Consistent with our hypothesis, dyscalculics were significantly impaired in supra-second duration estimation but not in the control task. Furthermore, supra-second timing ability positively correlated with mathematical proficiency. All participants reported that they used counting to estimate time, although no specific instructions were given with respect to counting. These results suggest that numerical processing and supra-second temporal estimation share common mechanisms. However, since this conclusion is also based on subjective observations, further work needs to be done to determine whether mathematical impairment co-occurs with supra-second time estimation impairment when counting is not involved in and is objectively controlled for during supra-second timing. We hypothesize that counting, that does not develop normally in dyscalculics, might underlie and adversely affect dyscalculics’ supra-second time estimation performance, rather than an impairment of a magnitude mechanism or the internal clock pacemaker.

Loading

Full text loading...

/deliver/journals/22134468/2/2/22134468_002_02_s003_text.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1163/22134468-00002026&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah
/content/journals/10.1163/22134468-00002026
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Aagten-Murphy D. , Iversen J. R. , Williams C. L. , Meck W. H. ( 2014). "Novel inversions in auditory sequences provide evidence for spontaneous subtraction of time and number". Timing Time Percept., Vol 2, 188209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/22134468-00002028
2. Agrillo C. , Piffer L. , Bisazza A. , Butterworth B. ( 2012). "Evidence for two numerical systems that are similar in humans and guppies". PLoS One, Vol 7, e31923. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031923
3. Agrillo C. , Ranpura A. , Butterworth B. ( 2010). "Time and numerosity estimation are independent: Behavioral evidence for two different systems using a conflict paradigm". Cogn. Neurosci., Vol 1, 96101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17588921003632537
4. Allman M. J. , Pelphrey K. A. , Meck W. H. ( 2011). "Developmental neuroscience of time and number: Implications for autism and other neurodevelopmental disabilities". Front. Integr. Neurosci., Vol 6, 7.
5. Allman M. J. , Teki S. , Griffiths T. D. , Meck W. H. ( 2014). "Properties of the internal clock: First- and second-order principles of subjective time". Annu. Rev. Psychol., Vol 65, 743771. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010213-115117
6. Ashkenazi S. , Rubinsten O. , Henik A. ( 2009). "Attention, automaticity, and developmental dyscalculia". Neuropsychology, Vol 23, 535540. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0015347
7. Brannon E. M. , Suanda S. , Libertus K. ( 2007). "Temporal discrimination increases in precision over development and parallels the development of numerosity discrimination". Dev. Sci., Vol 10, 770777. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2007.00635.x
8. Brown S. W. , Newcomb D. C. , Kahrl K. G. ( 1995). "Temporal-signal detection and individual differences in timing". Perception, Vol 24, 525538. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/p240525
9. Bueti D. , Lasaponara S. , Cercignani M. , Macaluso E. ( 2012). "Learning about time: Plastic changes and interindividual brain differences". Neuron, Vol 75, 725737. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2012.07.019
10. Bueti D. , Walsh V. ( 2009). "The parietal cortex and the representation of time, space, number and other magnitudes". Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci., Vol 364, 18311840. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2009.0028
11. Buhusi C. V. , Cordes S. ( 2011). "Time and number: The privileged status of small values in the brain". Front. Integr. Neurosci., Vol 5, 67. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnint.2011.00067
12. Buhusi C. V. , Meck W. H. ( 2005). "What makes us tick? Functional and neural mechanisms of interval timing". Nat. Rev. Neurosci., Vol 6, 755765. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrn1764
13. Buonomano D. V. ( 2007). "The biology of time across different scales". Nat. Chem. Biol., Vol 3, 594597. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nchembio1007-594
14. Butterworth B. ( 1999). "A head for figures". Science, Vol 284, 928929. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.284.5416.928
15. Butterworth B. ( 2003). Dyscalculia Screener. London, UK: NFER-Nelson.
16. Butterworth B. ( 2005). "Developmental dyscalculia". In Campbell J. I. D. (Ed.), Handbook of Mathematical Cognition(pp.  455467). Hove, UK: Psychology Press.
17. Butterworth B. ( 2010). "Foundational numerical capacities and the origins of dyscalculia". Trends Cogn. Sci., Vol 14, 534541. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2010.09.007
18. Cantlon J. F. , Platt M. L. , Brannon E. M. ( 2009). "Beyond the number domain". Trends Cogn. Sci., Vol 13, 8391. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2008.11.007
19. Cappelletti M. , Freeman E. D. , Cipolotti L. ( 2009). "Dissociations and interactions between time, numerosity and space processing". Neuropsychologia, Vol 47, 27322748. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2009.05.024
20. Cappelletti M. , Freeman E. D. , Butterworth B. L. ( 2011a). "Time processing in dyscalculia". Front. Psychol., Vol 2, 364. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00364
21. Cappelletti M. , Freeman E. D. , Cipolotti L. ( 2011b). "Numbers and time doubly dissociate". Neuropsychologia, Vol 49, 30783092. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2011.07.014
22. Cappelletti M. , Gessaroli E. , Hithersay R. , Mitolo M. , Didino D. , Kanai R. , Cohen Kadosh R. , Walsh V. ( 2013). "Transfer of cognitive training across magnitude dimensions achieved with concurrent brain stimulation of the parietal lobe". J. Neurosci., Vol 33, 1489914907. http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1692-13.2013
23. Castelli F. , Glaser D. E. , Butterworth B. ( 2006). "Discrete and analogue quantity processing in the parietal lobe: A functional MRI study". Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U.S.A., Vol 103, 46934698. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0600444103
24. Cohen Kadosh R. , Gertner L. , Terhune D. B. ( 2012). "Exceptional abilities in the spatial representation of numbers and time: Insights from synesthesia". Neuroscientist, Vol 18, 208215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073858411402835
25. Cordes S. , Brannon E. M. ( 2008). "Quantitative competencies in infancy". Dev. Sci., Vol 11, 803808. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2008.00770.x
26. Cordes S. , Brannon E. M. ( 2009). "Crossing the divide: Infants discriminate small from large numerosities". Dev. Psychol., Vol 45, 15831594. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0015666
27. Coull J. T. , Vidal F. , Nazarian B. , Macar F. ( 2004). "Functional anatomy of the attentional modulation of time estimation". Science, Vol 303, 15061508. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1091573
28. Crawford J. R. , Howell D. C. ( 1998). "Comparing an individual’s test score against norms derived from small samples". J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol., Vol 12, 482486. http://dx.doi.org/10.1076/clin.12.4.482.7241
29. Dehaene S. , Brannon E. M. ( 2010). "Space, time, and number: A Kantian research program Introduction". Trends Cogn. Sci., Vol 14, 517519. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2010.09.009
30. Geary D. C. , Bow-Thomas C. C. , Yao Y. ( 1992). "Counting knowledge and skill in cognitive addition: A comparison of normal and mathematically disabled children". J. Exp. Child Psychol., Vol 54, 372391. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0965(92)90026-3
31. Geary D. C. , Hamson C. O. , Hoard M. K. ( 2000). "Numerical and arithmetical cognition: A longitudinal study of process and concept deficits in children with learning disability". J. Exp. Child Psychol., Vol 77, 236263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jecp.2000.2561
32. Gilaie-Dotan S. , Kanai R. , Rees G. ( 2011). "Anatomy of human sensory cortices reflects inter-individual variability in time estimation". Front. Integr. Neurosci., Vol 5, 76. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnint.2011.00076
33. Gilliland A. R. , Martin R. ( 1940). "Some factors in estimating short time intervals". J. Exp. Psychol., Vol 27, 243255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0060494
34. Grondin S. , Killeen P. R. ( 2009). "Tracking time with song and count: Different Weber functions for musicians and nonmusicians". Atten. Percept. Psychophys., Vol 71, 16491654. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/APP.71.7.1649
35. Grondin S. , Meilleur-Wells G. , Lachance R. ( 1999). "When to start explicit counting in a time-intervals discrimination task: A critical point in the timing process of humans". J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform., Vol 25, 9931004. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.25.4.993
36. Grondin S. , Ouellet B. , Roussel M. E. ( 2004). "Benefits and limits of explicit counting for discriminating temporal intervals". Can. J. Exp. Psychol., Vol 58, 112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0087436
37. Halberda J. , Mazzocco M. M. , Feigenson L. ( 2008). "Individual differences in non-verbal number acuity correlate with maths achievement". Nature, Vol 455, 665668. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature07246
38. Hayashi M. J. , Kanai R. , Tanabe H. C. , Yoshida Y. , Carlson S. , Walsh V. , Sadato N. ( 2013a). "Interaction of numerosity and time in prefrontal and parietal cortex". J. Neurosci., Vol 33, 883893. http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6257-11.2013
39. Hayashi M. J. , Valli A. , Carlson S. ( 2013b). "Numerical quantity affects time estimation in the suprasecond range". Neurosci. Lett., Vol 543, 711. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2013.02.054
40. Hinton S. C. , Harrington D. L. , Binder J. R. , Durgerian S. , Rao S. M. ( 2004). "Neural systems supporting timing and chronometric counting: An FMRI study". Brain Res. Cogn. Brain Res., Vol 21, 183192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogbrainres.2004.04.009
41. Hinton S. C. , Rao S. M. ( 2004). "One-thousand one… one-thousand two…”: Chronometric counting violates the scalar property in interval timing". Psychon. Bull. Rev., Vol 11, 2430. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03206456
42. Holloway I. D. , Ansari D. ( 2008). "Domain-specific and domain-general changes in children’s development of number comparison". Dev. Sci., Vol 11, 644649. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2008.00712.x
43. Jackson M. , Warrington E. K. ( 1986). "Arithmetic skills in patients with unilateral cerebral lesions". Cortex, Vol 22, 611620. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0010-9452(86)80020-X
44. Javadi A. H. , Aichelburg C. ( 2012). "When time and numerosity interfere: The longer the more, and the more the longer". PLoS One, Vol 7, e41496.
45. Kaufmann L. ( 2008). "Dyscalculia: Neuroscience and education". Educ. Res., Vol 50, 163175. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00131880802082658
46. Landerl K. , Bevan A. , Butterworth B. ( 2004). "Developmental dyscalculia and basic numerical capacities: A study of 8–9-year-old students". Cognition, Vol 93, 99125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2003.11.004
47. Lewis P. A. , Miall R. C. ( 2003). "Distinct systems for automatic and cognitively controlled time measurement: Evidence from neuroimaging". Curr. Opin. Neurobiol., Vol 13, 250255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0959-4388(03)00036-9
48. Lustig C. ( 2011). "The neuroscience of time and number: Untying the Gordian knot". Front. Integr. Neurosci., Vol 5, 47. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnint.2011.00047
49. Macar F. , Coull J. , Vidal F. ( 2006). "The supplementary motor area in motor and perceptual time processing: fMRI studies". Cogn. Process., Vol 7, 8994. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10339-005-0025-7
50. Mauk M. D. , Buonomano D. V. ( 2004). "The neural basis of temporal processing". Annu. Rev. Neurosci., Vol 27, 307340. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.neuro.27.070203.144247
51. Mazzocco M. M. , Feigenson L. , Halberda J. ( 2011). "Impaired acuity of the approximate number system underlies mathematical learning disability (dyscalculia)". Child Dev., Vol 82, 12241237. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01608.x
52. Meck W. H. ( 1996). "Neuropharmacology of timing and time perception". Cogn. Brain Res., Vol 3, 227242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0926-6410(96)00009-2
53. Meck W. H. , Church R. M. ( 1983). "A mode control model of counting and timing processes". J. Exp. Psychol. Anim. Behav. Process., Vol 9, 320334. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0097-7403.9.3.320
54. Meck W. H. , Church R. M. , Gibbon J. ( 1985). "Temporal integration in duration and number discrimination". J. Exp. Psychol. Anim. Behav. Process., Vol 11, 591597. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0097-7403.11.4.591
55. Merchant H. , Harrington D. L. , Meck W. H. ( 2013). "Neural basis of the perception and estimation of time". Annu. Rev. Neurosci., Vol 36, 313336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-062012-170349
56. Murphy G. L. ( 1997). "Reasons to doubt the present evidence for metaphoric representation". Cognition, Vol 62, 99108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0010-0277(96)00725-1
57. Mussolin C. , Mejias S. , Noel M. P. ( 2010). "Symbolic and nonsymbolic number comparison in children with and without dyscalculia". Cognition, Vol 115, 1025. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2009.10.006
58. Naatanen R. , Syssoeva O. , Takegata R. ( 2004). "Automatic time perception in the human brain for intervals ranging from milliseconds to seconds". Psychophysiology, Vol 41, 660663. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.2004.00182.x
59. Piazza M. , Facoetti A. , Trussardi A. N. , Berteletti I. , Conte S. , Lucangeli D. , Dehaene S. , Zorzi M. ( 2010). "Developmental trajectory of number acuity reveals a severe impairment in developmental dyscalculia". Cognition, Vol 116, 3341. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2010.03.012
60. Poppel E. ( 1997). "A hierarchical model of temporal perception". Trends Cogn. Sci., Vol 1, 5661. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1364-6613(97)01008-5
61. Rakitin B. C. , Gibbon J. , Penney T. B. , Malapani C. , Hinton S. C. , Meck W. H. ( 1998). "Scalar expectancy theory and peak-interval timing in humans". J. Exp. Psychol. Anim. Behav. Process., Vol 24, 1533. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0097-7403.24.1.15
62. Roitman J. D. , Brannon E. M. , Andrews J. R. , Platt M. L. ( 2007). "Nonverbal representation of time and number in adults". Acta Psychol. (Amst.), Vol 124, 296318. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2006.03.008
63. Rubinsten O. , Henik A. ( 2009). "Developmental dyscalculia: Heterogeneity might not mean different mechanisms". Trends Cogn. Sci., Vol 13, 9299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2008.11.002
64. Rubinsten O. , Tannock R. ( 2010). "Mathematics anxiety in children with developmental dyscalculia". Behav. Brain Funct., Vol 6, 46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1744-9081-6-46
65. Tokita M. , Ishiguchi A. ( 2011). "Temporal information affects the performance of numerosity discrimination: Behavioral evidence for a shared system for numerosity and temporal processing". Psychon. Bull. Rev., Vol 18, 550556. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13423-011-0072-2
66. Treisman M. ( 1963). "Temporal discrimination and the indifference interval. Implications for a model of the “internal clock”". Psychol. Monogr., Vol 77, 131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0093864
67. Treisman M. ( 1984). "Temporal rhythms and cerebral rhythms". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., Vol 423, 542565. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1984.tb23458.x
68. Treisman M. , Cook N. , Naish P. L. , MacCrone J. K. ( 1994). "The internal clock: Electroencephalographic evidence for oscillatory processes underlying time perception". Q. J. Exp. Psychol. A, Vol 47, 241289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14640749408401112
69. Treisman M. , Faulkner A. , Naish P. L. , Brogan D. ( 1990). "The internal clock: Evidence for a temporal oscillator underlying time perception with some estimates of its characteristic frequency". Perception, Vol 19, 705743. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/p190705
70. Trick L. M. , Pylyshyn Z. W. ( 1993). "What enumeration studies can show us about spatial attention: Evidence for limited capacity preattentive processing". J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform., Vol 19, 331351. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.19.2.331
71. Walsh V. ( 2003). "A theory of magnitude: Common cortical metrics of time, space and quantity". Trends Cogn. Sci., Vol 7, 483488. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2003.09.002
72. Watson A. B. , Pelli D. G. ( 1983). "QUEST: A Bayesian adaptive psychometric method". Percept. Psychophys., Vol 33, 113120. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03202828
73. Wearden J. H. ( 2005). "Origins and development of internal clock theories of psychological time". Psychol. Fr., Vol 50, 525.
74. Wearden J. H. , McShane B. ( 1988). "Interval production as an analogue of the peak procedure: Evidence for similarity of human and animal timing processes". Q. J. Exp. Psychol. B, Vol 40, 363375.
75. Wechsler D. ( 1986). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Revised. New York, NY, USA: The Psychological Corporation.
76. Wiener M. , Turkeltaub P. , Coslett H. B. ( 2010). "The image of time: A voxel-wise meta-analysis". NeuroImage, Vol 49, 17281740. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.09.064
77. Yates M. J. ( 2012). "Time and number sense develop in tandem?" Front. Integr. Neurosci., Vol 6, 12. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnint.2012.00012
78. Yates M. J. , Loetscher T. , Nicholls M. E. ( 2012). "A generalized magnitude system for space, time, and quantity? A cautionary note". J. Vis., Vol 12( 7), 9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/12.7.9
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/22134468-00002026
Loading
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/22134468-00002026
2014-05-19
2017-04-30

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation