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The Impact of Public Law Norms on Private Law Relationships

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Horizontal Effect in German, English, echr and eu Law

image of European Journal of Comparative Law and Governance

This article examines the doctrinal foundation and potential for harmonisation of horizontal effect in German and English law against the common legal background of the echr and eu law. It compares direct horizontal effect with two models of indirect horizontal effect, based either on objective constitutional values (indirect Model A), or subjective public law rights (indirect Model B). It is contended that indirect horizontal effect based on subjective public law rights, particularly those corresponding to the state’s obligation to respect, protect and fulfil human rights, provides a coherent and predictable solution to most problems arising in horizontal effect cases.

Affiliations: 1: Faculty of Laws, University of Cologne,


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