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The Sudden Disappearance of Nitpael and the Rise of Hitpael in Modern Hebrew, and the Role of Yiddish in the Process

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In this article I will present some data about the uses and the distribution of Hitpael and Nitpael during the revival years of Modern Hebrew. While examining this new data, I will try to answer two questions: a) What caused the authors from 1870 to 1920 to prefer the Nitpael form over the Hitpael form; and b) What happened in later years when Hitpael took Nitpael’s place, and became much more frequently used in written and spoken Modern Hebrew? I suggest that Yiddish had influenced speakers to use the Nitpael form in earlier days, but that since its influence on speakers had diminished, and because the meanings of Nitpael are a sub-group of Hitpael’s meanings, Hitpael became the more frequent form of use.

Affiliations: 1: The Hebrew University of JerusalemIsraelshira.wigderson@mail.huji.ac.il

10.1163/22134638-12340031
/content/journals/10.1163/22134638-12340031
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1. Beinfeld Solon, Bochner Harry Comprehensive Yiddish–English Dictionary 2013 Bloomington, IN Indiana University Press
2. Bolozky Shmuel Hazan Efraim, Livnat Zohar"“Nitpael and Hitpael in Israeli Hebrew.”" Mishnaic Hebrew and Related Fields: Studies in Honor of Shimon Sharvit 2010 Ramat-Gan Bar-Ilan University Press 277 289 (in Hebrew)
3. Doron Edit Hatav G."“The Contribution of the Template to Verb Meaning.”" Modern Linguistics of Hebrew 2008 Jerusalem Magnes Press 57 88 (in Hebrew)
4. Harshav Benjamin Yiddish and Jewish Discourse 2006Vol vol. 4 Jerusalem Carmel 32 46 (in Hebrew)
5. Reshef Yael Cohen Chaim E."“Continuity vs. Change in the Emergence of Standard Modern Hebrew: The Verbal System in the Early Mandate Period.”" Modern Hebrew: Two Hundred and Fifty Years 2009 Jerusalem Hebrew Language Academy 143 176 (in Hebrew)
6. Shatil Nimrod"“The Synchronic Status of Nitpa’el.”" Divrei ha-ḥug ha-yisr’eli levalshanut 2007Vol 16 105 127 (in Hebrew)
7. Siloni Tal Hatav G."“About the Hitpael Binyan.”" Modern Linguistics of Hebrew 2008 Jerusalem Magnes Press 111 138 (in Hebrew)
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/content/journals/10.1163/22134638-12340031
2015-10-16
2017-12-13

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