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Making Sense of the Chemical Senses

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We review our recent behavioural and imaging studies testing the consequences of congenital blindness on the chemical senses in comparison with the condition of anosmia. We found that congenitally blind (CB) subjects have increased sensitivity for orthonasal odorants and recruit their visually deprived occipital cortex to process orthonasal olfactory stimuli. In sharp contrast, CB perform less well than sighted controls in taste and retronasal olfaction, i.e. when processing chemicals inside the mouth. Interestingly, CB do not recruit their occipital cortex to process taste stimuli. In contrast to these findings in blindness, congenital anosmia is associated with lower taste and trigeminal sensitivity, accompanied by weaker activations within the ‘flavour network’ upon exposure to such stimuli. We conclude that functional adaptations to congenital anosmia or blindness are quite distinct, such that CB can train their exteroceptive chemical senses and recruit normally visual cortical areas to process chemical information from the surrounding environment.

Affiliations: 1: Harland Sanders Chair, School of Optometry, University of Montreal, 3744 Jean-Brillant, Room 210-05, Montreal, H3T 1P1, Quebec, Canada and Brain Research and Integrative Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark

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http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/22134808-00002461
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2014-11-11
2017-11-20

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