Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

The Moving History of Vestibular Stimulation as a Therapeutic Intervention

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

For more content, see Seeing and Perceiving and Spatial Vision.

Although the discovery and understanding of the function of the vestibular system date back only to the 19th century, strategies that involve vestibular stimulation were used long before to calm, soothe and even cure people. While such stimulation was classically achieved with various motion devices, like Cox’s chair or Hallaran’s swing, the development of caloric and galvanic vestibular stimulation has opened up new possibilities in the 20th century. With the increasing knowledge and recognition of vestibular contributions to various perceptual, motor, cognitive, and emotional processes, vestibular stimulation has been suggested as a powerful and non-invasive treatment for a range of psychiatric, neurological and neurodevelopmental conditions. Yet, the therapeutic interventions were, and still are, often not hypothesis-driven as broader theories remain scarce and underlying neurophysiological mechanisms are often vague. We aim to critically review the literature on vestibular stimulation as a form of therapy in various selected disorders and present its successes, expectations, and drawbacks from a historical perspective.

Affiliations: 1: 1Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia; 2: 2Neuropsychology Unit, Department of Neurology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

Loading

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/22134808-00002495
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Abercrombie P. H. , McKenzie D. ( 1910). "Hysterical deafness with active vestibular reactions", Proc. R. Soc. Med. Vol 3, 7476.
2. Albert T. J. , Dempesy C. W. , Sorenson C. A. ( 1985). "Anterior cerebellar vermal stimulation: effect on behavior and basal forebrain neurochemistry in rat", Biol. Psychiatry Vol 20, 12671276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0006-3223(85)90111-8
3. Anderson C. M. , Polcari A. , Lowen S. B. , Renshaw P. F. , Teicher M. H. ( 2002). "Effects of methylphenidate on functional magnetic resonance relaxometry of the cerebellar vermis in boys with ADHD", Am. J. Psychiatry Vol 159, 13221328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.159.8.1322
4. André J. M. , Paysant J. , Martinet N. , Beis J. M. ( 2001a). [ "Classification and mechanisms of body perceptions in the amputees"], Ann. Réadapt. Méd. Phys. Vol 44, 1318. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-6054(00)00058-1
5. André J. M. , Martinet N. , Paysant J. , Beis J. M. , Le Chapelain L. ( 2001b). "Temporary phantom limbs evoked by vestibular caloric stimulation in amputees", Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol. Behav. Neurol. Vol 14, 190196.
6. Angelaki D. E. , Gu Y. , DeAngelis G. C. ( 2009). "Multisensory integration: psychophysics, neurophysiology, and computation", Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. Vol 19, 452458. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2009.06.008
7. Arnold L. E. , Clark D. L. , Sachs L. A. , Jakim S. , Smithies C. ( 1985). "Vestibular and visual rotational stimulation as treatment for attention deficit and hyperactivity", Am. J. Occup. Ther. Vol 39, 8491. http://dx.doi.org/10.5014/ajot.39.2.84
8. Augustin F. L. ( 1803). Versuch einer vollständigen systematischen Geschichte der galvanischen Electricität und ihrer medicinischen Anwendung. In der Felischischen Buchhandlung, Berlin, Germany.
9. Ayres A. J. ( 1978). "Learning disabilities and the vestibular system", J. Learn. Disabil. Vol 11, 1829.
10. Ayres A. J. , Heskett W. M. ( 1972). "Sensory integrative dysfunction in a young schizophrenic girl", J. Autism Child. Schizophr. Vol 2, 174181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01537570
11. Bachtold D. , Baumann T. , Sandor P. S. , Kritos M. , Regard M. , Brugger P. ( 2001). "Spatial- and verbal-memory improvement by cold-water caloric stimulation in healthy subjects", Exp. Brain Res. Vol 136, 128132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002210000588
12. Balaban C. D. ( 2011). "Migraine, vertigo and migrainous vertigo: links between vestibular and pain mechanisms", J. Vestib. Res. Vol 21, 315321.
13. Balaban C. D. , Jacob R. G. ( 2001). "Background and history of the interface between anxiety and vertigo", J. Anxiety Disord. Vol 15, 2751. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0887-6185(00)00041-4
14. Baloh R. W. ( 2002). "Robert Bárány and the controversy surrounding his discovery of the caloric reaction", Neurology Vol 58, 10941099. http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.58.7.1094
15. Bárány R. ( 1907). Physiologie und Pathologie (Funktions-Prufung) des Bogengang-Apparates beim Menschen. F. Deuticke, Leipzig, Germany.
16. Barnard K. E. , Bee H. L. ( 1983). "The impact of temporally patterned stimulation on the development of preterm infants", Child Dev. Vol 54, 11561167. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1129671
17. Barnett-Cowan M. , Meilinger T. , Vidal M. , Teufel H. , Bülthoff H. H. ( 2012). "MPI CyberMotion Simulator: implementation of a novel motion simulator to investigate multisensory path integration in three dimensions", J. Vis. Exp.( 63), e3436. DOI: .
18. Bayer L. , Constantinescu I. , Perrig S. , Vienne J. , Vidal P.-P. , Mühlethaler M. , Schwartz S. ( 2011). "Rocking synchronizes brain waves during a short nap", Curr. Biol. Vol 21, R461R462. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2011.05.012
19. Bhatara V. , Clark D. L. , Arnold L. E. ( 1978). "Behavioral and nystagmus response of a hyperkinetic child to vestibular stimulation", Am. J. Occup. Ther. Vol 32, 311316.
20. Bhatara V. , Clark D. L. , Arnold L. E. , Gunsett R. , Smeltzer D. J. ( 1981). "Hyperkinesis treated by vestibular stimulation: an exploratory study", Biol. Psychiatry Vol 16, 269279.
21. Blanke O. ( 2012). "Multisensory brain mechanisms of bodily self-consciousness", Nat. Rev. Neurosci. Vol 13, 556571.
22. Bogousslavsky J. ( 2011). "Hysteria after Charcot: back to the future", Front. Neurol. Neurosci. Vol 29, 137161. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000321783
23. Bonnier P. ( 1893). Vertige. Rueff, Chartres, France.
24. Bonnier P. ( 1905). "L’Aschématie", Rev. Neurol. Vol 12, 605609.
25. Bottini G. , Paulesu E. , Gandola M. , Loffredo S. , Scarpa P. , Sterzi R. , Santilli I. , Defanti C. A. , Scialfa G. , Fazio F. , Vallar G. ( 2005). "Left caloric vestibular stimulation ameliorates right hemianesthesia", Neurology Vol 65, 12781283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000182398.14088.e8
26. Bottini G. , Gandola M. , Sedda A. , Ferrè E. R. ( 2013). "Caloric vestibular stimulation: interaction between somatosensory system and vestibular apparatus", Front. Integr. Neurosci. Vol 7, 66. DOI: . http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnint.2013.00066
27. Breathnach C. S. ( 2010). "Hallaran’s circulating swing", Hist. Psychiatry Vol 21, 7984. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0957154X09342760
28. Breuer J. ( 1874). Ueber die Function der Bogengänge des Ohrlabyrinthes, Med. Jb., Wien, Austria, 72–124.
29. Brocklehurst-Woods J. ( 1990). "The use of tactile and vestibular stimulation to reduce stereotypic behaviors in two adults with mental retardation", Am. J. Occup. Ther. Vol 44, 536541. http://dx.doi.org/10.5014/ajot.44.6.536
30. Bürgy M. ( 2008). "The concept of psychosis: historical and phenomenological aspects", Schizophr. Bull. Vol 34, 12001210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbm136
31. Burrows G. M. ( 1828). Commentaries on the Causes, Forms, Symptoms, and Treatment, Moral and Medical, of Insanity. T. and G. Underwood, London, UK.
32. Campos R. G. ( 1994). "Rocking and pacifiers: two comforting interventions for heelstick pain", Res. Nurs. Health Vol 17, 321331. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nur.4770170503
33. Cappa S. , Sterzi R. , Vallar G. , Bisiach E. ( 1987). "Remission of hemineglect and anosognosia during vestibular stimulation", Neuropsychologia Vol 25, 775782. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0028-3932(87)90115-1
34. Chokron S. , Dupierrix E. , Tabert M. , Bartolomeo P. ( 2007). "Experimental remission of unilateral spatial neglect", Neuropsychologia Vol 45, 31273148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2007.08.001
35. Clark D. L. , Arnold L. E. , Crowl L. , Bozzolo H. , Peruggia M. , Ramadan Y. , Bornstein R. , Hollway J. A. , Thompson S. , Malone K. , Hall K. L. , Shelton S. B. , Bozzolo D. R. , Cook A. ( 2008). "Vestibular stimulation for ADHD: randomized controlled trial of comprehensive motion apparatus", J. Atten. Disord. Vol 11, 599611. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1087054707311042
36. Coelho C. M. , Balaban C. D. ( 2014). "Visuo-vestibular contributions to anxiety and fear", Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. Vol 48, 148159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.10.023
37. Cox J. M. ( 1806). Practical Observations on Insanity, 2nd edn. Baldwin, London, UK.
38. Critchley M. ( 1950). "The body-image in neurology", Lancet Vol 255, 335341. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(50)90101-2
39. Critchley M. ( 1953). The Parietal Lobes. Edward Arnold, London, UK.
40. Crum Brown A. ( 1874). "Preliminary note on the sense of rotation and the function of the semicircular canals of the internal ear", Proc. R. Soc. Edinb. Vol 8, 255257.
41. Crum Brown A. ( 1878). "Cyon’s researches on the ear. II", Nature Vol 18, 657659. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/018657a0
42. Curthoys I. S. , Vulovic V. , Burgess A. M. , Manzari L. , Sokolic L. , Pogson J. , Robins M. , Mezey L. E. , Goonetilleke S. , Cornell E. D. , MacDougall H. G. ( 2014). "Neural basis of new clinical vestibular tests: otolithic neural responses to sound and vibration", Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. Vol 41, 371380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1440-1681.12222
43. Darwin E. ( 1801). Zoonomia; or, the Laws of Organic Life, Vol Vol. 4, 3rd edn. Johnson, London, UK.
44. Dave C. A. ( 1992). "Effects of linear vestibular stimulation on body-rocking behavior in adults with profound mental retardation", Am. J. Occup. Ther. Vol 46, 910915. http://dx.doi.org/10.5014/ajot.46.10.910
45. de Barros A. C. M. P. , Caovilla H. H. ( 2012). "From nystagmus to the air and water caloric tests", Braz. J. Otorhinolaryngol. Vol 78, 120125.
46. De Vignemont F. ( 2010). "Body schema and body image — pros and cons", Neuropsychologia Vol 48, 669680. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2009.09.022
47. Dodge R. ( 1923a). "Habituation to rotation", J. Exp. Psychol. Vol 6, 135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0076063
48. Dodge R. ( 1923b). "Thresholds of rotation", J. Exp. Psychol. Vol 6, 107137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0076105
49. Dodson M. J. ( 2004). "Vestibular stimulation in mania: a case report", J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry Vol 75, 168169.
50. Doneshka P. , Kehaiyov A. ( 1978). "Some peculiarities of the dreams of patients with vestibular diseases", Acta Med. Iugosl. Vol 32, 4550.
51. Dyk D. , Drake V. , Wallis P. , Baker G. , Self B. ( 2008). "A home device for vestibular stimulation", Honors Undergrad. Res. J. Vol 1, 10. Available at: .
52. Eagger S. , Luxon L. M. , Davies R. A. , Coelho A. , Ron M. A. ( 1992). "Psychiatric morbidity in patients with peripheral vestibular disorder: a clinical and neuro-otological study", J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry Vol 55, 383387. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.55.5.383
53. Egger M. , Davey Smith G. , Schneider M. , Minder C. ( 1997). "Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test", Br. Med. J. Vol 315, 629634. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.315.7109.629
54. Falconer C. J. , Mast F. W. ( 2012). "Balancing the mind: vestibular induced facilitation of egocentric mental transformations", Exp. Psychol. Vol 59, 332339. http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/1618-3169/a000161
55. Ferrè E. R. , Bottini G. , Haggard P. ( 2012). "Vestibular inputs modulate somatosensory cortical processing", Brain Struct. Funct. Vol 217, 859864. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00429-012-0404-7
56. Ferrè E. R. , Bottini G. , Iannetti G. D. , Haggard P. ( 2013). "The balance of feelings: vestibular modulation of bodily sensations", Cortex Vol 49, 748758. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2012.01.012
57. Ferrè E. R. , Kaliuzhna M. , Herbelin B. , Haggard P. , Blanke O. ( 2014). "Vestibular–somatosensory interactions: effects of passive whole-body rotation on somatosensory detection", PLoS One Vol 9, e86379. DOI: . http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086379
58. Figliozzi F. , Guariglia P. , Silvetti M. , Siegler I. , Doricchi F. ( 2005). "Effects of vestibular rotatory accelerations on covert attentional orienting in vision and touch", J. Cogn. Neurosci. Vol 17, 16381651. http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/089892905774597272
59. Fitzpatrick R. C. , Day B. L. ( 2004). "Probing the human vestibular system with galvanic stimulation", J. Appl. Physiol. Vol 96, 23012316. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00008.2004
60. Fitzpatrick R. C. , Butler J. E. , Day B. L. ( 2006). "Resolving head rotation for human bipedalism", Curr. Biol. Vol 16, 15091514. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2006.05.063
61. Flourens P. ( 1830). "Expériences sur les canaux semi-circulaires de l’oreille dans les oiseaux", Mem. Acad. Sci. Vol 9, 455466.
62. Frank J. , Levinson H. ( 1973). "Dysmetric dyslexia and dyspraxia. Hypothesis and study", J. Am. Acad. Child Psychiatry Vol 12, 690701. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-7138(09)61276-0
63. Freud S. ( 1962). "On the grounds for detaching a particular syndrome from neurasthenia under the description “anxiety neurosis”", in: The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Vol. III (1893–1899): Early Psycho-Analytic Publications, Strachey J. (Ed. and transl.), pp.  85115. Hogarth Press, London, UK.
64. Gackenbach J. , Snyder T. J. , Rokes L. M. , Sachau D. ( 1986). "Lucid dreaming frequency in relation to vestibular sensitivity as measured by caloric stimulation", J. Mind Behav. Vol 7, 277298.
65. Godemann F. , Linden M. , Neu P. , Heipp E. , Dörr P. ( 2004). "A prospective study on the course of anxiety after vestibular neuronitis", J. Psychosom. Res. Vol 56, 351354. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3999(03)00079-5
66. Goldberg J. M. , Fernández C. ( 2011). "The vestibular system", in: Handbook of Physiology, Smith I. D. (Ed.), pp.  9771022. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, USA.
67. Goldberg J. M. , Smith C. E. , Fernandez C. ( 1984). "Relation between discharge regularity and responses to externally applied galvanic currents in vestibular nerve afferents of the squirrel monkey", J. Neurophysiol. Vol 51, 12361256.
68. Goltz F. ( 1870). "Ueber die physiologische Bedeutung der Bogengänge des Ohrlabyrinths", Arch. Physiol. Vol 3, 172192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01855753
69. Grapengiesser C. J. C. ( 1801). Versuche den Galvanismus zur Heilung einiger Krankheiten Anzuwenden. Myliussische Buchhandlung, Berlin, Germany.
70. Graybiel A. ( 1969). "Structural elements in the concept of motion sickness", Aerosp. Med. Vol 40, 351367.
71. Graybiel A. , Brown R. H. ( 1951). "The delay in visual reorientation following exposure to a change in direction of resultant force on a human centrifuge", J. Gen. Psychol. Vol 45, 143150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00221309.1951.9918275
72. Graybiel A. , Knepton J. ( 1976). "Sopite syndrome: a sometimes sole manifestation of motion sickness", Aviat. Space Environ. Med. Vol 47, 873882.
73. Graybiel A. , Clark B. , Zarriello J. ( 1960). "Observations on human subjects living in a “slow rotation room” for periods of two days", Arch. Neurol. Vol 3, 5573. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archneur.1960.00450010055006
74. Graybiel A. , Wood C. D. , Miller E. F. , Cramer D. B. ( 1968). "Diagnostic criteria for grading the severity of acute motion sickness", Aerosp. Med. Vol 39, 453455.
75. Gregg C. L. , Haffner M. E. , Korner A. F. ( 1976). "The relative efficacy of vestibular-proprioceptive stimulation and the upright position in enhancing visual pursuit in neonates", Child Dev. Vol 47, 309314. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1128783
76. Griffith C. R. ( 1922). An historical survey of vestibular equilibration, Vol. 20, No. 5. University of Illinois.
77. Gudziol H. , Koch C. , Bitter T. , Guntinas-Lichius O. ( 2012). "Wet air as an alternative to traditional water irrigation during caloric vestibular testing", Laryngoscope Vol 122, 703707. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.22493
78. Guedry F. E. , Graybiel A. ( 1961). Rotation Devices, Other Than Centrifuges and Motion Simulators: The Rationale for Their Special Characteristics and Use, Vol. 902. National Academies.
79. Gurvich C. , Maller J. J. , Lithgow B. , Haghgooie S. , Kulkarni J. ( 2013). "Vestibular insights into cognition and psychiatry", Brain Res. Vol 1537, 244259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2013.08.058
80. Hallaran W. S. ( 1818). Practical Observations on the Cause and Cure of Insanity. Cork, London, UK.
81. Hallpike C. S. , Harrison M. S. , Slater E. ( 1951). "Abnormalities of the caloric test results in certain varieties of mental disorder", Acta Otolaryngol. Vol 39, 151159. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00016485109120291
82. Harsch V. ( 2006). "Centrifuge “therapy” for psychiatric patients in Germany in the early 1800s", Aviat. Space Environ. Med. Vol 77, 157160.
83. Heinrichs R. W. ( 2003). "Historical origins of schizophrenia: two early madmen and their illness", J. Hist. Behav. Sci. Vol 39, 349363. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jhbs.10152
84. Hitzig E. ( 1874). Untersuchungen über das Gehirn. Abhandlungen physiologischen und pathologischen Inhalts. Verlag vom August Hirschwald, Berlin, Germany.
85. Hixson V. J. , Mathews A. W. ( 1984). "Sensory integration and chronic schizophrenia: past, present and future", Can. J. Occup. Ther. Vol 51, 1924.
86. Horn E. ( 1818). Öffentliche Rechenschaft über meine zwölfjährige Dienstführung als zweiter Arzt des k. Charité Krankenhauses. In der Realschulbuchhandlung, Berlin, Germany.
87. Horner R. L. , Sanford L. D. , Pack A. I. , Morrison A. R. ( 1997). "Activation of a distinct arousal state immediately after spontaneous awakening from sleep", Brain Res. Vol 778, 127134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-8993(97)01045-7
88. Horowitz S. S. , Blanchard J. , Morin L. P. ( 2005). "Medial vestibular connections with the hypocretin (orexin) system", J. Comp. Neurol. Vol 487, 127146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cne.20521
89. Ichijo H. ( 2011). "Can caloric testing evaluate the function of vertical semicircular canals?" Acta Otolaryngol. Vol 131, 716721. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00016489.2011.554436
90. Ichijo H. ( 2012). "Does the superior semicircular canal receive caloric stimulation?" Am. J. Otolaryngol. Vol 33, 718722. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjoto.2012.06.006
91. James W. ( 1881). "Sense of dizziness in deaf-mutes", Mind Vol 6( 23), 412413.
92. Jauregui-Renaud K. , Sang F. Y. P. , Gresty M. A. , Green D. A. , Bronstein A. M. ( 2008). "Depersonalisation/derealisation symptoms and updating orientation in patients with vestibular disease", J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry Vol 79, 276283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.2007.122119
93. Johnston C. , Stremler R. , Stevens B. J. , Horton L. J. ( 1997). "Effectiveness of oral sucrose and simulated rocking on pain response in preterm neonates", Pain Vol 72, 193199. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3959(97)00033-X
94. Jütte R. ( 2009). "Schwindelerregend: Drehmaschinen in der vormodernen Psychiatrie", in: Körper, Dinge Und Bewegung: Der Gleichgewichtssinn in Materieller Kultur Und Ästhetik, Schönhammer R. (Ed.), pp.  128139. Facultas, Wien, Austria.
95. Kantner R. M. , Clark D. L. , Allen L. C. , Chase M. F. ( 1976). "Effects of vestibular stimulation on nystagmus response and motor performance in the developmentally delayed infant", Phys. Ther. Vol 56, 414421.
96. Karnath H. O. , Dieterich M. ( 2006). "Spatial neglect — a vestibular disorder?" Brain Vol 129, 293305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awh698
97. Kelly G. ( 1989). "Vestibular stimulation as a form of therapy", Physiotherapy Vol 75, 136140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9406(10)62765-4
98. Kerkhoff G. , Keller I. , Ritter V. , Marquardt C. ( 2006). "Repetitive optokinetic stimulation induces lasting recovery from visual neglect", Restor. Neurol. Neurosci. Vol 24, 357369.
99. Kim D. J. , Yogendrakumar V. , Chiang J. , Ty E. , Wang Z. J. , McKeown M. J. ( 2013). "Noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation modulates the amplitude of EEG synchrony patterns", PLoS One Vol 8, e69055. DOI: .
100. Kolev O. ( 1990). "How caloric vestibular irritation influences migraine attacks", Cephalalgia Vol 10, 167169. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1468-2982.1990.1004167.x
101. Kolev O. I. ( 1995). "Visual hallucinations evoked by caloric vestibular stimulation in normal humans", J. Vestib. Res. Vol 5, 1923. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0957-4271(94)00016-U
102. Korner A. F. , Lane N. M. , Berry K. L. , Rho J. M. , Brown B. W. ( 1990). "Sleep enhanced and irritability reduced in preterm infants: differential efficacy of three types of waterbeds", J. Dev. Behav. Pediatr. Vol 11, 240246.
103. Krewer C. , Rieß K. , Bergmann J. , Müller F. , Jahn K. , Koenig E. ( 2013). "Immediate effectiveness of single-session therapeutic interventions in pusher behaviour", Gait Posture Vol 37, 246250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2012.07.014
104. Krystal A. D. , Zammit G. K. , Wyatt J. K. , Quan S. F. , Edinger J. D. , White D. P. , Chiacchierini R. P. , Malhotra A. ( 2010). "The effect of vestibular stimulation in a four-hour sleep phase advance model of transient insomnia", J. Clin. Sleep Med. Vol 6, 315321.
105. Kunkle E. , Lund D. , Maher P. ( 1948). "Studies on headache: analysis of vascular mechanisms in headache by use of the human centrifuge, with observations on pain perception under increased positive g", Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry Vol 60, 253269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archneurpsyc.1948.02310030034003
106. Lawson B. D. , Mead A. M. ( 1998). "The sopite syndrome revisited: drowsiness and mood changes during real or apparent motion", Acta Astronaut. Vol 43, 181192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0094-5765(98)00153-2
107. Le Chapelain L. , Beis J. M. , Paysant J. , André J. M. ( 2001). "Vestibular caloric stimulation evokes phantom limb illusions in patients with paraplegia", Spinal Cord Vol 39, 8587. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.sc.3101093
108. Lee J.-W. , Lee G.-E. , An J.-H. , Yoon S.-W. , Heo M. , Kim H.-Y. ( 2014). "Effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation on visual memory recall and EEG", J. Phys. Ther. Sci. Vol 26, 13331336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1589/jpts.26.1333
109. Lenggenhager B. , Lopez C. ( 2015). Vestibular contributions to the sense of body, self, and others, in: T. Metzinger, and J. M. Windt (Eds), Open MIND, 23(T), MIND-Group, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. DOI: .
110. Lenggenhager B. , Lopez C. , Blanke O. ( 2008). "Influence of galvanic vestibular stimulation on egocentric and object-based mental transformations", Exp. Brain Res. Vol 184, 211221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-007-1095-9
111. Lenggenhager B. , Hilti L. , Palla A. , Macauda G. , Brugger P. ( 2014). "Vestibular stimulation does not diminish the desire for amputation", Cortex Vol 54, 210212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2014.02.004
112. Leslie K. , Ogilvie R. ( 1996). "Vestibular dreams: the effect of rocking on dream mentation", Dreaming Vol 6, 116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0094442
113. Levine J. , Toder D. , Geller V. , Kraus M. , Gauchman T. , Puterman M. , Grisaru N. ( 2012). "Beneficial effects of caloric vestibular stimulation on denial of illness and manic delusions in schizoaffective disorder: a case report", Brain Stimulat. Vol 5, 267273. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2011.03.004
114. Levinson H. N. ( 1988). "The cerebellar–vestibular basis of learning disabilities in children, adolescents and adults: hypothesis and study", Percept. Mot. Skills Vol 67, 9831006. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pms.1988.67.3.983
115. Levinson H. N. ( 1991). "Dramatic favorable responses of children with learning disabilities or dyslexia and attention deficit disorder to antimotion sickness medications: four case reports", Percept. Mot. Skills Vol 73, 723738. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pms.1991.73.3.723
116. Levy D. L. , Holzman P. S. , Proctor L. R. ( 1983). "Vestibular dysfunction and psychopathology", Schizophr. Bull. Vol 9, 383438. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/9.3.383
117. Lhermitte J. ( 1939). L’Image de Notre Corps, 1st edn. Nouvelle Revue Critique, Paris, France.
118. Lopez C. ( 2013). "A neuroscientific account of how vestibular disorders impair bodily self-consciousness", Front. Integr. Neurosci. Vol 7, 91. DOI: . http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnint.2013.00091
119. Lopez C. , Blanke O. ( 2011). "The thalamocortical vestibular system in animals and humans", Brain Res. Rev. Vol 67, 119146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2010.12.002
120. Lopez C. , Blanke O. ( 2014). "Nobel Prize centenary: Robert Bárány and the vestibular system", Curr. Biol. Vol 24, R1026R1028. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2014.09.067
121. Lopez C. , Heydrich L. , Seeck M. , Blanke O. ( 2010a). "Abnormal self-location and vestibular vertigo in a patient with right frontal lobe epilepsy", Epilepsy Behav. Vol 17, 289292. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2009.12.016
122. Lopez C. , Lenggenhager B. , Blanke O. ( 2010b). "How vestibular stimulation interacts with illusory hand ownership", Conscious. Cogn. Vol 19, 3347. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2009.12.003
123. Mach E. ( 1875). Grundlinien der Lehre von den Bewegungsempfindungen. Engelmann, Leipzig, Germany.
124. Maeda T. , Ando H. , Sugimoto M. ( 2005). Virtual acceleration with galvanic vestibular stimulation in a virtual reality environment, in: Proceedings IEEE Virtual Reality, 2005, pp. 289–290.
125. Mast F. W. , Preuss N. , Hartmann M. , Grabherr L. ( 2014). "Spatial cognition, body representation and affective processes: the role of vestibular information beyond ocular reflexes and control of posture", Front. Integr. Neurosci. Vol 8, 44. DOI: . http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnint.2014.00044
126. McDonnell M. D. , Ward L. M. ( 2011). "The benefits of noise in neural systems: bridging theory and experiment", Nat. Rev. Neurosci. Vol 12, 415426. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrn3061
127. McGeoch P. D. , Ramachandran V. S. ( 2008). "Vestibular stimulation can relieve central pain of spinal origin", Spinal Cord Vol 46, 756757. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sc.2008.47
128. McGeoch P. D. , Williams L. E. , Lee R. R. , Ramachandran V. S. ( 2008). "Behavioural evidence for vestibular stimulation as a treatment for central post-stroke pain", J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry Vol 79, 12981301. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.2008.146738
129. McGeoch P. D. , Williams L. E. , Song T. , Lee R. R. , Huang M. , Ramachandran V. S. ( 2009). "Post-stroke tactile allodynia and its modulation by vestibular stimulation: a MEG case study", Acta Neurol. Scand. Vol 119, 404409. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01106.x
130. McKay R. , Tamagni C. , Palla A. , Krummenacher P. , Hegemann S. C. A. , Straumann D. , Brugger P. ( 2013). "Vestibular stimulation attenuates unrealistic optimism", Cortex Vol 49, 22722275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2013.04.005
131. McKenzie D. ( 1912). "Hysterical deafness diagnosed (and cured) by the caloric vestibular test", Proc. R. Soc. Med. Vol 5, 1819.
132. McNiven D. ( 1986). "Rotational impairment of movement in the Parkinsonian patient", Physiotherapy Vol 72, 381382.
133. Ménière P. ( 1861). "Mémoire sur des lésions de l’oreille interne donnant lieu à des symptômes de congestion cérébrale apoplectiforme", Gaz. Med. (Paris) Vol 16, 597601.
134. Miller S. M. , Ngo T. T. ( 2007). "Studies of caloric vestibular stimulation: implications for the cognitive neurosciences, the clinical neurosciences and neurophilosophy", Acta Neuropsychiatr. Vol 19, 183203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1601-5215.2007.00208.x
135. Nakamura J. , Kita Y. , Yuda T. , Ikuno K. , Okada Y. , Shomoto K. ( 2014). "Effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation combined with physical therapy on pusher behavior in stroke patients: a case series", NeuroRehabilitation Vol 35, 3137.
136. Noll-Hussong M. , Holzapfel S. , Pokorny D. , Herberger S. ( 2014). "Caloric vestibular stimulation as a treatment for conversion disorder: a case report and medical hypothesis", Front. Psychiatry Vol 5, 63. DOI: . http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2014.00063
137. Noreika V. , Windt J. M. , Lenggenhager B. , Karim A. A. ( 2010). "New perspectives for the study of lucid dreaming: from brain stimulation to philosophical theories of self-consciousness", Int. J. Dream Res. Vol 3, 3645.
138. Oosterveld W. J. , Graybiel A. , Cramer D. B. ( 1973). "Susceptibility to reflex vestibular disturbances and motion sickness as a function of mental states of alertness and sleep", Adv. Otorhinolaryngol. Vol 19, 286294.
139. Oppenländer K. , Keller I. , Karbach J. , Schindler I. , Kerkhoff G. , Reinhart S. (in press; published online ahead of print November 2014). "Subliminal galvanic-vestibular stimulation influences ego- and object-centred components of visual neglect", Neuropsychologia. DOI: .
140. Ornitz E. M. ( 1970). "Vestibular dysfunction in schizophrenia and childhood autism", Compr. Psychiatry Vol 11, 159173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0010-440X(70)90157-4
141. Ornitz E. M. , Forsythe A. B. , de la Peña A. ( 1973). "Effect of vestibular and auditory stimulation on the rems of rem sleep in autistic children", Arch. Gen. Psychiatry Vol 29, 786791. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1973.04200060062009
142. Ossenkopp K. P. , Macrae L. K. , Bettin M. A. , Kavaliers M. ( 1988). "Body-rotation induced analgesia in male mice: effects of duration and type of rotation procedure", Brain Res. Bull. Vol 21, 967972. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0361-9230(88)90036-6
143. Pal S. , Rosengren S. M. , Colebatch J. G. ( 2009). "Stochastic galvanic vestibular stimulation produces a small reduction in sway in Parkinson’s disease", J. Vestib. Res. Vol 19, 137142.
144. Palla A. , Lenggenhager B. ( 2014). "Ways to investigate vestibular contributions to cognitive processes", Front. Integr. Neurosci. Vol 8, 40. DOI: . http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnint.2014.00040
145. Pan W. , Soma R. , Kwak S. , Yamamoto Y. ( 2008). "Improvement of motor functions by noisy vestibular stimulation in central neurodegenerative disorders", J. Neurol. Vol 255, 16571661.
146. Pfeiffer C. , Serino A. , Blanke O. ( 2014). "The vestibular system: a spatial reference for bodily self-consciousness", Front. Integr. Neurosci. Vol 8, 31. DOI: . http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnint.2014.00031
147. Pope D. , Whiteley H. ( 2003). "Developmental dyslexia, cerebellar/vestibular brain function and possible links to exercise-based interventions: a review", Eur. J. Spec. Needs Educ. Vol 18, 109123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0885625032000042348
148. Preuss N. , Hasler G. , Mast F. W. ( 2014a). "Caloric vestibular stimulation modulates affective control and mood", Brain Stimulat. Vol 7, 133140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2013.09.003
149. Preuss N. , Mast F. W. , Hasler G. ( 2014b). "Purchase decision-making is modulated by vestibular stimulation", Front. Behav. Neurosci. Vol 8, 51. DOI: . http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00051
150. Purkinje J. E. ( 1820). "Beyträge zur näheren Kenntniss des Schwindels aus heautognostischen Daten", Med. Jahrb. Kais.-Könglichen Österr. Staates Vol 6, 79125.
151. Ramachandran V. S. , McGeoch P. ( 2007). "Can vestibular caloric stimulation be used to treat apotemnophilia?" Med. Hypotheses Vol 69, 250252. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2006.12.013
152. Ramachandran V. S. , McGeoch P. D. , Williams L. ( 2007a). "Can vestibular caloric stimulation be used to treat Dejerine–Roussy syndrome?" Med. Hypotheses Vol 69, 486488. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2006.12.036
153. Ramachandran V. S. , McGeoch P. D. , Williams L. , Arcilla G. ( 2007b). "Rapid relief of thalamic pain syndrome induced by vestibular caloric stimulation", Neurocase Vol 13, 185188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13554790701450446
154. Risey J. , Briner W. ( 1990). "Dyscalculia in patients with vertigo", J. Vestib. Res. Vol 1, 3137.
155. Ritvo E. R. , Ornitz E. M. , Eviatar A. , Markham C. H. , Brown M. B. , Mason A. ( 1969). "Decreased postrotatory nystagmus in early infantile autism", Neurology Vol 19, 653658. http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.19.7.653
156. Rode G. , Charles N. , Perenin M. T. , Vighetto A. , Trillet M. , Aimard G. ( 1992). "Partial remission of hemiplegia and somatoparaphrenia through vestibular stimulation in a case of unilateral neglect", Cortex Vol 28, 203208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0010-9452(13)80048-2
157. Rode G. , Vallar G. , Revol P. , Tilikete C. , Jacquin-Courtois S. , Rossetti Y. , Farnè A. ( 2012). "Facial macrosomatognosia and pain in a case of Wallenberg’s syndrome: selective effects of vestibular and transcutaneous stimulations", Neuropsychologia Vol 50, 245253. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2011.11.018
158. Rorden C. , Karnath H. O. , Driver J. ( 2001). "Do neck-proprioceptive and caloric-vestibular stimulation influence covert visual attention in normals, as they influence visual neglect?" Neuropsychologia Vol 39, 364375. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0028-3932(00)00126-3
159. Rubens A. B. ( 1985). "Caloric stimulation and unilateral visual neglect", Neurology Vol 35, 10191024. http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.35.7.1019
160. Rubinstein J. T. , Tyler R. S. ( 2004). "Electrical suppression of tinnitus", in: Tinnitus: Theory and Management, Snow J. B. (Ed.), pp.  326335. B. C. Decker Inc., Hamilton, ON, Canada& Lewiston, New York, NY, USA.
161. Samoudi G. , Nissbrandt H. , Dutia M. B. , Bergquist F. ( 2012). "Noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation promotes GABA release in the substantia nigra and improves locomotion in hemiparkinsonian rats", PLoS One Vol 7, e29308. DOI: . http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029308
162. Sang F. Y. P. , Jauregui-Renaud K. , Green D. A. , Bronstein A. M. , Gresty M. A. ( 2006). "Depersonalisation/derealisation symptoms in vestibular disease", J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry Vol 77, 760766. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.2005.075473
163. Schilder P. ( 1933). "The vestiblar apparatus in neurosis and psychosis", J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. Vol 78, 123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005053-193307000-00001
164. Schilder P. ( 1935). The Image and Appearance of the Human Body. Kegan Paul, London, UK.
165. Schmidt L. , Keller I. , Utz K. S. , Artinger F. , Stumpf O. , Kerkhoff G. ( 2013). "Galvanic vestibular stimulation improves arm position sense in spatial neglect: a sham-stimulation-controlled study", Neurorehabil. Neural Repair Vol 27, 497506. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1545968312474117
166. Sergeant J. A. , Piek J. P. , Oosterlaan J. ( 2006). "ADHD and DCD: a relationship in need of research", Hum. Mov. Sci. Vol 25, 7689. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2005.10.007
167. Sharot T. , Phelps E. A. ( 2004). "How arousal modulates memory: disentangling the effects of attention and retention", Cogn. Affect. Behav. Neurosci. Vol 4, 294306. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/CABN.4.3.294
168. Shen S. , Liu Y. , Sun X. , Zhao W. , Su Y. , Yu S. , Liu W. ( 2013). "A biomechanical model of the inner ear: numerical simulation of the caloric test", ScientificWorldJournal Vol 2013, 160205. DOI: .
169. Silberpfennig J. ( 1941). "Contributions to the problem of eye movements", Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg. Vol 4, 113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000106147
170. Silver L. B. ( 1986). "Controversial approaches to treating learning disabilities and attention deficit disorder", Am. J. Dis. Child. Vol 140, 10451052.
171. Slavik B. A. , Kitsuwa-Lowe J. , Danner P. T. , Green J. , Ayres A. J. ( 1984). "Vestibular stimulation and eye contact in autistic children", Neuropediatrics Vol 15, 3336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2008-1052337
172. Smith P. F. ( 2012). "Dyscalculia and vestibular function", Med. Hypotheses Vol 79, 493496. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2012.06.032
173. Smith P. F. , Zheng Y. ( 2013). "From ear to uncertainty: vestibular contributions to cognitive function", Front. Integr. Neurosci. Vol 7, 84. DOI: . http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnint.2013.00084
174. Smith P. F. , Geddes L. H. , Baek J.-H. , Darlington C. L. , Zheng Y. ( 2010). "Modulation of memory by vestibular lesions and galvanic vestibular stimulation", Front. Neurol. Vol 1, 141. DOI: . http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2010.00141
175. Snyder M. , Tseng Y. , Brandt C. , Croghan C. , Hanson S. , Constantine R. , Kirby L. ( 2001). "A glider swing intervention for people with dementia", Geriatr. Nurs. Vol 22, 8690. http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mgn.2001.115197
176. Soza Ried A. M. , Aviles M. ( 2007). "Asymmetries of vestibular dysfunction in major depression", Neuroscience Vol 144, 128134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2006.09.023
177. Stewart D. ( 1965). "A platform with six degrees of freedom", Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Vol 180, 371386. http://dx.doi.org/10.1243/PIME_PROC_1965_180_029_02
178. Thornton A. , Lee P. ( 2000). "Publication bias in meta-analysis: its causes and consequences", J. Clin. Epidemiol. Vol 53, 207216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0895-4356(99)00161-4
179. Todd N. P. , Cody F. W. ( 2000). "Vestibular responses to loud dance music: a physiological basis of the “rock and roll threshold”?" J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Vol 107, 496500. http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.428317
180. Trommsdorff J. B. ( 1811). Almanach der Fortschritte, neuesten Erfindungen und Entdeckungen in Wissenschaften, Künsten, Manufakturen und Handwerken. G. A. Keyser, Erfurt, Germany.
181. Utz K. S. , Dimova V. , Oppenländer K. , Kerkhoff G. ( 2010). "Electrified minds: transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) as methods of non-invasive brain stimulation in neuropsychology — a review of current data and future implications", Neuropsychologia Vol 48, 27892810. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.06.002
182. Utz K. S. , Korluss K. , Schmidt L. , Rosenthal A. , Oppenländer K. , Keller I. , Kerkhoff G. ( 2011). "Minor adverse effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation in persons with stroke and healthy individuals", Brain Inj. Vol 25, 10581069. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/02699052.2011.607789
183. Valente M. ( 2007). "Maturational effects of the vestibular system: a study of rotary chair, computerized dynamic posturography, and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials with children", J. Am. Acad. Audiol. Vol 18, 461481. http://dx.doi.org/10.3766/jaaa.18.10.4
184. Vallar G. , Bottini G. , Sterzi R. ( 2003). "Anosognosia for left-sided motor and sensory deficits, motor neglect, and sensory hemiinattention: is there a relationship?" Prog. Brain Res. Vol 142, 289301. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6123(03)42020-7
185. Vieth G. U. A. ( 1795). Versuch einer Encyklopädie der Leibesübungen. Hartmann, Berlin, Germany.
186. Vose R. H. ( 1981). Agoraphobia. Faber & Faber, London, UK.
187. Voss U. , Frenzel C. , Koppehele-Gossel J. , Hobson A. ( 2012). "Lucid dreaming: an age-dependent brain dissociation", J. Sleep Res. Vol 21, 634642. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2869.2012.01022.x
188. Voss U. , Holzmann R. , Hobson A. , Paulus W. , Koppehele-Gossel J. , Klimke A. , Nitsche M. A. ( 2014). "Induction of self awareness in dreams through frontal low current stimulation of gamma activity", Nat. Neurosci. Vol 17, 810812. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nn.3719
189. Wade N. J. ( 2000). "William Charles Wells (1757–1817) and vestibular research before Purkinje and Flourens", J. Vestib. Res. Vol 10, 127137.
190. Wade N. ( 2003). Destined for Distinguished Oblivion: The Scientific Vision of William Charles Wells (1757–1817). Springer Science & Business Media, Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-0213-5
191. Wade N. J. ( 2005). "The original spin doctors — the meeting of perception and insanity", Perception Vol 34, 253260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/p3403ed
192. Wade N. J. , Brozek J. , Hoskovec J. ( 2001). Purkinje’s Vision: The Dawning of Neuroscience. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ, USA.
193. Wade N. J. , Norrsell U. , Presly A. ( 2005). "Cox’s chair: “A moral and a medical mean in the treatment of maniacs”", Hist. Psychiatry Vol 16, 7388. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0957154X05046093
194. Walsh E. G. ( 1961). "Role of the vestibular apparatus in the perception of motion on a parallel swing", J. Physiol. Vol 155, 506513. http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.1961.sp006643
195. Walther L. E. , Asenov D. R. , Di Martino E. ( 2011). "Caloric stimulation with near infrared radiation does not induce paradoxical nystagmus", Acta Otorhinolaryngol. Vol 31, 9095.
196. Wilkinson D. , Ko P. , Kilduff P. , McGlinchey R. , Milberg W. ( 2005). "Improvement of a face perception deficit viasubsensory galvanic vestibular stimulation", J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc. Vol 11, 925929. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1355617705051076
197. Wilkinson D. , Nicholls S. , Pattenden C. , Kilduff P. , Milberg W. ( 2008). "Galvanic vestibular stimulation speeds visual memory recall", Exp. Brain Res. Vol 189, 243248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-008-1463-0
198. Wilkinson D. , Zubko O. , Sakel M. ( 2009). "Safety of repeated sessions of galvanic vestibular stimulation following stroke: a single-case study", Brain Inj. Vol 23, 841845. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699050903232541
199. Wilkinson D. , Zubko O. , Degutis J. , Milberg W. , Potter J. ( 2010). "Improvement of a figure copying deficit during subsensory galvanic vestibular stimulation", J. Neuropsychol. Vol 4, 107118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/174866409X468205
200. Wilkinson D. , Morris R. , Milberg W. , Sakel M. ( 2013). "Caloric vestibular stimulation in aphasic syndrome", Front. Integr. Neurosci. Vol 7, 99. DOI: . http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnint.2013.00099
201. Wilkinson D. , Zubko O. , Sakel M. , Coulton S. , Higgins T. , Pullicino P. ( 2014). "Galvanic vestibular stimulation in hemi-spatial neglect", Front. Integr. Neurosci. Vol 8, 4. DOI: . http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnint.2014.00004
202. Winter L. , Kruger T. H. C. , Laurens J. , Engler H. , Schedlowski M. , Straumann D. , Wollmer M. A. ( 2012). "Vestibular stimulation on a motion-simulator impacts on mood states", Front. Psychol. B, 499. DOI: .
203. Winter L. , Wollmer M. A. , Laurens J. , Straumann D. , Kruger T. H. C. ( 2013). "Cox’s chair revisited: can spinning alter mood states?" Front. Psychiatry Vol 4, 132. DOI: . http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00132
204. Woodward S. , Tauber E. S. , Spielmann A. J. , Thorpy M. J. ( 1990). "Effects of otolithic vestibular stimulation on sleep", Sleep Vol 13, 533537.
205. Yamamoto Y. , Struzik Z. R. , Soma R. , Ohashi K. , Kwak S. ( 2005). "Noisy vestibular stimulation improves autonomic and motor responsiveness in central neurodegenerative disorders", Ann. Neurol. Vol 58, 175181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.20574
206. Young S. M. ( 1987). The effect of vestibular stimulation on Parkinsonian step length, Thesis, University of Ulster.
207. zu Eulenburg P. , Baumgärtner U. , Treede R.-D. , Dieterich M. ( 2013). "Interoceptive and multimodal functions of the operculo-insular cortex: tactile, nociceptive and vestibular representations", NeuroImage Vol 83, 7586. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.06.057
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/22134808-00002495
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/22134808-00002495
2015-07-31
2018-04-19

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
    Multisensory Research — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation