Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Which Direction Is up for a High Pitch?

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Multisensory Research
For more content, see Seeing and Perceiving and Spatial Vision.

Low- and high-pitched sounds are perceptually associated with low and high visuospatial elevations, respectively. The spatial properties of this association are not well understood. Here we report two experiments that investigated whether low and high tones can be used as spatial cues to upright for self-orientation and identified the spatial frame(s) of reference used in perceptually binding auditory pitch to visuospatial ‘up’ and ‘down’. In experiment 1, participants’ perceptual upright (PU) was measured while lying on their right side with and without high- and low-pitched sounds played through speakers above their left ear and below their right ear. The sounds were ineffective in moving the perceived upright from a direction intermediate between the body and gravity towards the direction indicated by the sounds. In experiment 2, we measured the biasing effects of ascending and descending tones played through headphones on ambiguous vertical or horizontal visual motion created by combining gratings drifting in opposite directions while participants either sat upright or laid on their right side. Ascending and descending tones biased the interpretation of ambiguous motion along both the gravitational vertical and the long-axis of the body with the strongest effect along the body axis. The combination of these two effects showed that axis of maximum effect of sound corresponded approximately to the direction of the perceptual upright, compatible with the idea that ‘high’ and ‘low’ sounds are defined along this axis.

Affiliations: 1: Centre for Vision Research, York University, Toronto, Canada

Loading

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/22134808-00002516
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Aubert H. ( 1861). "Eine scheinbare Drehung von Objekten bei Neigung des Kopfes nach rechts oder links", Virchows Arch. Vol 20, 381393. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02355256
2. Bak P. , Tang C. , Wiesenfeld K. ( 1987). "Self-organized criticality: an explanation of 1/ fnoise", Phys. Rev. Lett. Vol 59, 381384. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.59.381
3. Barnett-Cowan M. , Jenkin H. L. , Jenkin M. R. , Harris L. R. ( 2013). "Asymmetrical representation of body orientation", J. Vis. Vol 13, 19.
4. Ben-Artzi E. , Marks L. E. ( 1995). "Visual–auditory interaction in speeded classification: role of stimulus difference", Percept. Psychophys. Vol 57, 11511162. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03208371
5. Benjamini Y. , Hochberg Y. ( 1995). "Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing", J. R. Stat. Soc. Vol 57, 289300.
6. Bernstein I. H. , Edelstein B. A. ( 1971). "Effects of some variations in auditory input upon visual choice reaction time", J. Exp. Psychol. Vol 87, 241247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0030524
7. Chiou R. , Rich A. N. ( 2012). "Cross-modality correspondence between pitch and spatial location modulates attentional orienting", Perception Vol 41, 339353. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/p7161
8. Dyde R. T. , Jenkin M. R. , Harris L. R. ( 2006). "The subjective visual vertical and the perceptual upright", Exp. Brain Res. Vol 173, 612622. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-006-0405-y
9. Easton D. R. , Greene A. J. , DiZio P. , Lackner J. R. ( 1998). "Auditory cues for orientation and postural control in sighted and congenitally blind people", Exp. Brain Res. Vol 118, 541550. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002210050310
10. Eitan Z. , Schupak A. , Marks L. E. ( 2008). Louder is higher: Cross-modal interaction of loudness change and vertical motion in speeded classification, in: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition, Sapporo, Japan.
11. Ernst M. O. , Banks M. S. ( 2002). "Humans integrate visual and haptic information in a statistically optimal fashion", Nature Vol 415, 429433. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/415429a
12. Evans K. K. , Treisman A. ( 2010). "Natural cross-modal mappings between visual and auditory features", J. Vis. Vol 10, 112.
13. Fesselier R. Y. , Knoblauch K. ( 2006). "Modeling psychometric functions in R", Beh. Res. Methods. Vol 38, 2841. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03192747
14. Field A. , Miles J. , Field Z. ( 2012). Discovering Statistics Using R. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA.
15. Harris L. R. ( 2009). "Visual–vestibular interactions", in: The Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, Squire L. R. (Ed.), Vol Vol. 10, pp.  381387. Academic Press, Oxford, UK. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-008045046-9.01125-6
16. Harris L. R. , Jenkin M. , Dyde R. T. , Jenkin H. L. ( 2011). "Enhancing visual cues to orientation: suggestions for space travelers and the elderly", in: Progress in Brain Research, Green A. M. , Chapman C. E. , Kalaska J. F. , Lepore F. (Eds), Vol Vol. 191, pp.  133142. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
17. Howard I. P. ( 1982). Human Visual Orientation. Wiley, New York, NY, USA.
18. Kleiner M. , Brainard D. , Pelli D. , Ingling A. , Murray R. , Broussard C. ( 2007). "What’s new in Psychtoolbox-3", Perception Vol 36( 14), 1.
19. Lackner J. R. , DiZio P. ( 2005). "Vestibular, proprioceptive, and haptic contributions to spatial orientation", Annu. Rev. Psychol. Vol 56, 115147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.142023
20. Lewald J. , Ehrenstein W. H. ( 1998). "Influence of head-to-trunk position on sound localization", Exp. Brain Res. Vol 121, 230238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002210050456
21. Maeda F. , Kanai R. , Shimojo S. ( 2004). "Changing pitch induced visual motion illusion", Curr. Biol. Vol 14, R990R991. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2004.11.018
22. Melara R. D. , Marks L. E. ( 1990). "Interaction among auditory dimensions: timbre, pitch, and loudness", Percept. Psychophys. Vol 48, 169178. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03207084
23. Melara R. D. , O’Brien T. P. ( 1987). "Interaction between synesthetically corresponding dimensions", J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. Vol 116, 323336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.116.4.323
24. Mittelstaedt H. ( 1983). "A new solution to the problem of the subjective vertical", Naturwissenschaften Vol 70, 272281. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00404833
25. Mossbridge J. A. , Grabowecky M. , Suzuki S. ( 2011). "Changes in auditory frequency guide visual–spatial attention", Cognition Vol 121, 133139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2011.06.003
26. Mudd S. A. ( 1963). "Spatial stereotypes of four dimensions of pure tone", J. Exp. Psychol. Vol 66, 347352. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0040045
27. Myung I. J. ( 2003). "Tutorial on maximum likelihood estimation", J. Math. Psychol. Vol 47, 90100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-2496(02)00028-7
28. Parise C. V. , Knorre K. , Ernst M. O. ( 2014). "Natural auditory scene statistics shapes human spatial hearing", Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. Vol 111, 61046108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1322705111
29. Patching G. R. , Quinlan P. T. ( 2002). "Garner and congruence effects in the speeded classification of bimodal signals", J. Exp. Psychol. Human Vol 28, 755775. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.28.4.755
30. Petersen H. , Magnusson M. , Johansson R. , Akesson M. , Fransson P. A. ( 1995). "Acoustic cues and postural control", Scand. J. Rehabil. Med. Vol 27, 99104.
31. Petersen H. , Magnusson M. , Johansson R. , Fransson P. A. ( 1996). "Auditory feedback regulation of perturbed stance in stroke patients", Scand. J. Rehabil. Med. Vol 28, 217223.
32. Pratt C. C. ( 1930). "The spatial character of high and low tones", J. Exp. Psychol. Vol 13, 278285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0072651
33. Roffler S. K. , Butler R. A. ( 1968). "Factors that influence the localization of sound in the vertical plane", J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Vol 43, 12551259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1910976
34. Sadaghiani S. , Joost X. M. , Noppeney U. ( 2009). "Natural, metaphoric, and linguistic auditory direction signals have distinct influences on visual motion processing", J. Neurosci. Vol 29, 64906499. http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5437-08.2009
35. Sakamoto S. , Osada Y. , Suzuki Y. , Gyoba J. ( 2004). "The effects of linearly moving sound images on self-motion perception", Acoust. Sci. Technol. Vol 25, 100102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1250/ast.25.100
36. Sakellari V. , Soames R. W. ( 1996). "Auditory and visual interactions in postural stabilization", Ergonomics Vol 39, 634648. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140139608964486
37. Spence C. ( 2011). "Crossmodal correspondences: a tutorial review", Atten. Percept. Psychophys. Vol 73, 971995. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13414-010-0073-7
38. Stumpf K. ( 1883). Tonpsychologie. S. Hirzel, Leipzig, Germany.
39. Väljamäe A. ( 2009). "Auditorily-induced illusory self-motion: a review", Brain Res. Rev. Vol 61, 240255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2009.07.001
40. Watson A. B. , Pelli D. G. ( 1983). "QUEST: a Bayesian adaptive psychometric method", Percept. Psychophys. Vol 33, 113120. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03202828
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/22134808-00002516
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/22134808-00002516
2016-01-01
2017-11-24

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
    Multisensory Research — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation