Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Open Access Insights and Perspectives on Sensory-Motor Integration and Rehabilitation

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Insights and Perspectives on Sensory-Motor Integration and Rehabilitation

  • PDF
  • HTML
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

For more content, see Seeing and Perceiving and Spatial Vision.

The present review focuses on the flow and interaction of somatosensory-motor signals in the central and peripheral nervous system. Specifically, where incoming sensory signals from the periphery are processed and interpreted to initiate behaviors, and how ongoing behaviors produce sensory consequences encoded and used to fine-tune subsequent actions. We describe the structure–function relations of this loop, how these relations can be modeled and aspects of somatosensory-motor rehabilitation. The work reviewed here shows that it is imperative to understand the fundamental mechanisms of the somatosensory-motor system to restore accurate motor abilities and appropriate somatosensory feedback. Knowledge of the salient neural mechanisms of sensory-motor integration has begun to generate innovative approaches to improve rehabilitation training following neurological impairments such as stroke. The present work supports the integration of basic science principles of sensory-motor integration into rehabilitation procedures to create new solutions for sensory-motor disorders.

Affiliations: 1: 2Laboratoire Neurosciences Intégratives et Adaptatives (UMR 7260), CNRS — Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France ; 2: 1Department of Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden ; 3: 3Neural Plasticity Research Laboratory, Division of Physical Therapy, Dept of Rehabilitation Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA ; 4: 4The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa, Italy ; 5: 6Rehabilitation Engineering Laboratory, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland ; 6: 5The Laboratory for Investigative Neurophysiology, Dept of Radiology and Dept of Clinical Neurosciences, University Hospital Center and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

*To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: ionta.silvio@gmail.com

The present review focuses on the flow and interaction of somatosensory-motor signals in the central and peripheral nervous system. Specifically, where incoming sensory signals from the periphery are processed and interpreted to initiate behaviors, and how ongoing behaviors produce sensory consequences encoded and used to fine-tune subsequent actions. We describe the structure–function relations of this loop, how these relations can be modeled and aspects of somatosensory-motor rehabilitation. The work reviewed here shows that it is imperative to understand the fundamental mechanisms of the somatosensory-motor system to restore accurate motor abilities and appropriate somatosensory feedback. Knowledge of the salient neural mechanisms of sensory-motor integration has begun to generate innovative approaches to improve rehabilitation training following neurological impairments such as stroke. The present work supports the integration of basic science principles of sensory-motor integration into rehabilitation procedures to create new solutions for sensory-motor disorders.

Loading

Full text loading...

/deliver/journals/22134808/29/6-7/22134808_029_06-07_s005_text.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1163/22134808-00002530&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah
/content/journals/10.1163/22134808-00002530
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Ackerley R. , Kavounoudias A. (2015). "The role of tactile afference in shaping motor behaviour and implications for prosthetic innovation", Neuropsychologia Vol 79B, 192205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.06.024
2. Ackerley R. , Hassan E. , Curran A. , Wessberg J. , Olausson H. , McGlone F. (2012). "An fMRI study on cortical responses during active self-touch and passive touch from others", Front. Behav. Neurosci. Vol 6, 51. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2012.00051
3. Ackerley R. , Carlsson I. , Wester H. , Olausson H. , Backlund Wasling H. (2014a). "Touch perceptions across skin sites: differences between sensitivity, direction discrimination and pleasantness", Front. Behav. Neurosci. Vol 8, 54. DOI:.
4. Ackerley R. , Saar K. , McGlone F. , Backlund Wasling H. (2014b). "Quantifying the sensory and emotional perception of touch: differences between glabrous and hairy skin", Front. Behav. Neurosci. Vol 8, 34. DOI:.
5. Ackerley R. , Backlund Wasling H. , Liljencrantz J. , Olausson H. , Johnson R. D. , Wessberg J. (2014c). "Human C-tactile afferents are tuned to the temperature of a skin-stroking caress", J. Neurosci. Vol 34, 28792883. http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2847-13.2014
6. Adams R. A. , Shipp S. , Friston K. J. (2013). "Predictions not commands: active inference in the motor system", Brain Struct. Funct. Vol 218, 611643. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00429-012-0475-5
7. Adrian E. (1926). "The impulses produced by sensory nerve endings. Part I", J. Physiol. Vol 61, 4972. http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.1926.sp002273
8. Avanzino L. , Tinazzi M. , Ionta S. , Fiorio M. (2015). "Sensory-motor integration in focal dystonia", Neuropsychologia Vol 79B, 288300. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.07.008
9. Bell C. J. , Shenoy P. , Chalodhorn R. , Rao R. P. (2008). "Control of a humanoid robot by a noninvasive brain-computer interface in humans", J. Neural Eng. Vol 5, 214220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1741-2560/5/2/012
10. Birznieks I. , Jenmalm P. , Goodwin A. W. , Johansson R. S. (2001). "Encoding of direction of fingertip forces by human tactile afferents", J. Neurosci. Vol 21, 82228237.
11. Blakemore S. J. , Wolpert D. M. , Frith C. D. (1998). "Central cancellation of self-produced tickle sensation", Nat. Neurosci. Vol 1, 635640. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/2870
12. Blakemore S. J. , Wolpert D. , Frith C. (2000). "Why can’t you tickle yourself?" Neuroreport Vol 11, R11R16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001756-200008030-00002
13. Bliss J. C. , Katcher M. H. , Rogers C. H. , Shepard R. P. (1970). "Optical-to-tactile image conversion for the blind", IEEE Trans. Man–Machine Syst. Vol 11, 5865. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMMS.1970.299963
14. Bonini L. , Serventi F. U. , Simone L. , Rozzi S. , Ferrari P. F. , Fogassi L. (2011). "Grasping neurons of monkey parietal and premotor cortices encode action goals at distinct levels of abstraction during complex action sequences", J. Neurosci. Vol 31, 58765886. http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5186-10.2011
15. Borich M. R. , Mang C. , Boyd L. A. (2012). "Both projection and commissural pathways are disrupted in individuals with chronic stroke: investigating microstructural white matter correlates of motor recovery", BMC Neurosci. Vol 13, 107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2202-13-107
16. Borich M. R. , Brown K. E. , Boyd L. A. (2013a). "Motor skill learning is associated with diffusion characteristics of white matter in individuals with chronic stroke", J. Neurol. Phys. Ther. Vol 38, 151160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NPT.0b013e3182a3d353
17. Borich M. R. , MacKay A. L. , Vavasour I. M. , Rauscher A. , Boyd L. A. (2013b). "Evaluation of white matter myelin water fraction in chronic stroke", NeuroImage Clin. Vol 2, 569580. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2013.04.006
18. Borich M. R. , Brodie S. M. , Gray W. A. , Ionta S. , Boyd L. A. (2015). "Understanding the role of the primary somatosensory cortex: opportunities for rehabilitation", Neuropsychologia Vol 79B, 246255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.07.007
19. Borstad A. , Schmalbrock P. , Choi S. , Nichols-Larsen D. S. (2012). "Neural correlates supporting sensory discrimination after left hemisphere stroke", Brain Res. Vol 1460, 7887. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2012.03.060
20. Boyd L. A. , Linsdell M. A. (2009). "Excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to left dorsal premotor cortex enhances motor consolidation of new skills", BMC Neurosci. Vol 10, 72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2202-10-72
21. Boyd L. A. , Winstein C. J. (2003). "Impact of explicit information on implicit motor-sequence learning following middle cerebral artery stroke", Phys. Ther. Vol 83, 976989.
22. Boyd L. A. , Winstein C. J. (2004a). "Cerebellar stroke impairs temporal but not spatial accuracy during implicit motor learning", Neurorehabil. Neural Repair Vol 18, 134143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0888439004269072
23. Boyd L. A. , Winstein C. J. (2004b). "Providing explicit information disrupts implicit motor learning after basal ganglia stroke", Learn. Mem. Vol 11, 388396. http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/lm.80104
24. Boyd L. , Winstein C. (2006). "Explicit information interferes with implicit motor learning of both continuous and discrete movement tasks after stroke", J. Neurol. Phys. Ther. Vol 30, 4657; discussion 58–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.NPT.0000282566.48050.9b
25. Boyd L. A. , Vidoni E. D. , Daly J. J. (2007). "Answering the call: the influence of neuroimaging and electrophysiological evidence on rehabilitation", Phys. Ther. Vol 87, 684703. http://dx.doi.org/10.2522/ptj.20060164
26. Boyd L. A. , Edwards J. D. , Siengsukon C. S. , Vidoni E. D. , Wessel B. D. , Linsdell M. A. (2009). "Motor sequence chunking is impaired by basal ganglia stroke", Neurobiol. Learn. Mem. Vol 92, 3544. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2009.02.009
27. Brang D. , Taich Z. J. , Hillyard S. A. , Grabowecky M. , Ramachandran V. S. (2013). "Parietal connectivity mediates multisensory facilitation", Neuroimage Vol 78, 396401. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.04.047
28. Brashers-Krug T. , Shadmehr R. , Bizzi E. (1996). "Consolidation in human motor memory", Nature Vol 382(6588), 252255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/382252a0
29. Brodal P. (1978). "The corticopontine projection in the rhesus monkey. Origin and principles of organization", Brain Vol 101, 251283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/101.2.251
30. Brodie S. M. , Borich M. R. , Boyd L. A. (2014). "Impact of 5-Hz rTMS over the primary sensory cortex is related to white matter volume in individuals with chronic stroke", Eur. J. Neurosci. Vol 9, 34053412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.12717
31. Bruce M. F. (1982). "A simple apparatus to assess cutaneous thermal sensitivity", J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. Vol 45, 557559. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.45.6.557
32. Busan P. , Barbera C. , Semenic M. , Monti F. , Pizzolato G. , Pelamatti G. , Battaglini P. P. (2009). "Effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on parietal and premotor cortex during planning of reaching movements", PLoS ONE Vol 4, e4621. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004621
33. Byrne J. (1975). "A feedback controlled stimulator that delivers con-trolled displacements or forces to cutaneous mechanoreceptors", IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. Vol 22, 6669. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TBME.1975.324543
34. Calautti C. , Baron J. C. (2003). "Functional neuroimaging studies of motor recovery after stroke in adults — a review", Stroke Vol 34, 15531566. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.0000071761.36075.A6
35. Calautti C. , Guincestre J. Y. , Leroy F. , Marie R. M. , Baron J. C. (2001a). "Neuronal correlates of objective motor recovery after subcortical stroke: a prospective and longitudinal PET activation study", Neuroimage Vol 13, S1142S1142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1053-8119(01)92465-6
36. Calautti C. , Leroy F. , Guincestre J. Y. , Baron J. C. (2001b). "Dynamics of motor network overactivation after striatocapsular stroke — a longitudinal PET study using a fixed-performance paradigm", Stroke Vol 32, 25342542. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/hs1101.097401
37. Calautti C. , Naccarato M. , Jones P. S. , Day D. J. , Fletcher P. C. , Carpenter T. A. , Bullmore E. T. , Warburton E. A. , Baron J. C. (2004). "Motor performance in the stable phase of recovery after subcortical stroke is related to laterality of motor network activation", Stroke Vol 35, 285.
38. Candidi M. , Urgesi C. , Ionta S. , Aglioti S. M. (2008). "Virtual lesion of ventral premotor cortex impairs visual perception of biomechanically possible but not impossible actions", Soc. Neurosci. Vol 3, 388400. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17470910701676269
39. Carey J. R. , Deng H. , Gillick B. T. , Cassidy J. M. , Anderson D. C. , Zhang L. , Thomas W. (2014). "Serial treatments of primed low-frequency rTMS in stroke: characteristics of responders vs. nonresponders", Restor. Neurol. Neurosci. Vol 32, 323335.
40. Carlsen A. N. , Eagles J. S. , MacKinnon C. D. (2015). "Transcranial direct current stimulation over the supplementary motor area modulates the preparatory activation level in the human motor system", Behav. Brain Res. Vol 279, 6875. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2014.11.009
41. Cerminara N. L. , Lang E. J. , Sillitoe R. V. , Apps R. (2015). "Redefining the cerebellar cortex as an assembly of non-uniform Purkinje cell microcircuits", Nat. Rev. Neurosci. Vol 16, 7993. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrn3886
42. Chida Y. , Kokubo Y. , Sato S. , Kuge A. , Takemura S. , Kondo R. , Kayama T. (2011). "The alterations of oligodendrocyte, myelin in corpus callosum, and cognitive dysfunction following chronic cerebral ischemia in rats", Brain Res. Vol 1414, 2231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2011.07.026
43. Colby C. L. , Duhamel J. R. (1996). "Spatial representations for action in parietal cortex", Brain Res. Cogn. Brain Res. Vol 5, 105115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0926-6410(96)00046-8
44. Curtze C. , Otten B. , Postema K. (2010). "Effects of lower limb amputation on the mental rotation of feet", Exp. Brain Res. Vol 201, 527534. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-009-2067-z
45. Daprati E. , Nico D. , Duval S. , Lacquaniti F. (2010). "Different motor imagery modes following brain damage", Cortex Vol 46, 10161030. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2009.08.002
46. Darian-Smith I. , Oke L. E. (1980). "Peripheral neural representation of the spatial frequency of a grating moving across the monkey’s finger pad", J. Physiol. Vol 309, 117133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.1980.sp013498
47. Davis K. D. , Kwan C. L. , Crawley A. P. , Mikulis D. J. (1998). "Functional MRI study of thalamic and cortical activations evoked by cutaneous heat, cold, and tactile stimuli", J. Neurophysiol. Vol 80, 15331546.
48. Desmurget M. , Reilly K. T. , Richard N. , Szathmari A. , Mottolese C. , Sirigu A. (2009). "Movement intention after parietal cortex stimulation in humans", Science Vol 324, 811813. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1169896
49. Dhillon G. S. , Horch K. W. (2005). "Direct neural sensory feedback and control of a prosthetic arm", IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng. Vol 13, 468472. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNSRE.2005.856072
50. Disbrow E. , Roberts T. , Krubitzer L. (2000). "Somatotopic organization of cortical fields in the lateral sulcus of Homo sapiens: evidence for SII and PV", J. Comp. Neurol. Vol 418, 121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-9861(20000228)418:1<1::AID-CNE1>3.0.CO;2-P
51. Dobkin B. H. (2007). "Behavioral, temporal, and spatial targets for cellular transplants as adjuncts to rehabilitation for stroke", Stroke Vol 38, 832839. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.0000248408.49398.9c
52. Duenas J. , Chapuis D. , Pfeiffer C. , Martuzzi R. , Ionta S. , Blanke O. , Gassert R. (2011). "Neuroscience robotics to investigate multisensory integration and bodily awareness", in: Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC, 2011 Annual International Conference of the IEEE, pp.  83488352. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IEMBS.2011.6092059
53. Dykes R. W. , Miqueé A. , Xerri C. , Rainville C. , Dumoulin A. , Marineau D. (2007). "A delivery device for presentation of tactile stimuli during functional magnetic resonance imaging", J. Neurosci. Meth. Vol 159, 308317. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2006.07.020
54. Ebisch S. J. H. , Ferri F. , Salone A. , Perrucci M. G. , D’Amico L. , Ferro F. M. , Romanim G. L. , Gallese V. (2011). "Differential involvement of somatosensory and interoceptive cortices during the observation of affective touch", J. Cogn. Neurosci. Vol 23, 18081822. http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/jocn.2010.21551
55. Edwards J. , Lawry J. , Rossiter J. , Melhuish C. (2008). "Extracting textural features from tactile sensors", Bioinspir. Biomim. Vol 3, 035002. DOI:. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-3182/3/3/035002
56. Edwards J. D. , Koehoorn M. , Boyd L. A. , Levy A. L. (2010). "Is health-related quality of life improving after stroke? A comparison of health utilities indices among canadians with stroke between 1996 and 2005", Stroke Vol 42, 9961000. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.576678
57. Ferezou I. , Haiss F. , Gentet L. J. , Aronoff R. , Weber B. , Petersen C. C. (2007). "Spatiotemporal dynamics of cortical sensorimotor integration in behaving mice", Neuron Vol 56, 907923. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2007.10.007
58. Fiori F. , Sedda A. , Ferre E. R. , Toraldo A. , Querzola M. , Pasotti F. , Ovadia D. , Piroddi C. , Dell’Aquila R. , Redaelli T. , Bottini G. (2014). "Motor imagery in spinal cord injury patients: moving makes the difference", J. Neuropsychol. Vol 8, 199215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jnp.12020
59. Fishel J. A. , Loeb G. E. (2012). "Bayesian exploration for intelligent identification of textures", Front. Neurorobot. Vol 6, 120. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbot.2012.00004
60. Fishel J. A. , Santos V. J. , Loeb G. E. (2008). "A robust micro-vibration sensor for biomimetic fingertips", in: BioRob 2008. 2nd IEEE RAS and EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics, pp.  659663. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/BIOROB.2008.4762917
61. Fitzgerald P. J. , Lane J. W. , Thakur P. H. , Hsiao S. S. (2006). "Receptive field properties of the macaque second somatosensory cortex: representation of orientation on different finger pads", J. Neurosci. Vol 26, 64736484. http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5057-05.2006
62. Fourkas A. D. , Ionta S. , Aglioti S. M. (2006). "Influence of imagined posture and imagery modality on corticospinal excitability", Behav. Brain Res. Vol 168, 190196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2005.10.015
63. Francis S. T. , Kelly E. F. , Bowtell R. , Dunseath W. J. , Folger S. E. , McGlone F. (2000). "fMRI of the responses to vibratory stimulation of digit tips", Neuroimage Vol 11, 188202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/nimg.2000.0541
64. Gardner E. P. , Palmer C. I. (1989). "Simulation of motion on the skin: I. Receptive fields and temporal frequency coding by cutaneous mechanoreceptors of OPTACON pulses delivered to the hand", J. Neurophysiol. Vol 62, 14101436.
65. Gardner E. P. , Ro J. Y. , Babu K. S. , Ghosh S. (2007). "Neurophysiology of prehension. II. Response diversity in primary somatosensory (S-I) and motor (M-I) cortices", J. Neurophysiol. Vol 97, 16561670. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.01031.2006
66. Gentile G. , Petkova V. I. , Ehrsson H. H. (2011). "Integration of visual and tactile signals from the hand in the human brain: an FMRI study", J. Neurophysiol. Vol 105, 910922. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00840.2010
67. Ghali N. I. , Soluiman O. , El-Bendary N. , Nassef T. M. , Ahmed S. A. , Elbarawy Y. M. , Hassanien A. E. (2012). "Virtual reality technology for blind and visual impaired people: reviews and recent advances", in: Advances in Robotics and Virtual Reality, Gulrez T. , Hassanien A. E. (Eds), pp.  363385. Springer, Berlin, Germany. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-23363-0_15
68. Go A. S. , Mozaffarian D. , Roger V. L. , Benjamin E. J. , Berry J. D. , Borden W. B. , Bravata D. M. , Dai S. , Ford E. S. , Fox C. S. , Franco S. , Fullerton H. J. , Gillespie C. , Hailpern S. M. , Heit J. A. , Howard V. J. , Huffman M. D. , Kissela B. M. , Kittner S. J. , Lackland D. T. , Lichtman J. H. , Lisabeth L. D. , Magid D. , Marcus G. M. , Marelli A. , Matchar D. B. , McGuire D. K. , Mohler E. R. , Moy C. S. , Mussolino M. E. , Nichol G. , Paynter N. P. , Schreiner P. J. , Sorlie P. D. , Stein J. , Turan T. N. , Virani S. S. , Wong N. D. , Woo D. , Turner M. B. (2013). "Heart disease and stroke statistics–2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association", Circulation Vol 127, e6e245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0b013e31828124ad
69. Golaszewski S. M. , Siedentopf C. M. , Koppelstaetter F. , Fend M. , Ischebeck A. , Gonzalez-Felipe V. , Haala I. , Struhal W. , Mottaghy F. M. , Gallasch E. (2006). "Human brain structures related to plantar vibrotactile stimulation: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study", Neuroimage Vol 29, 923929. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.08.052
70. Goodwin A. , Morley J. , Clarke C. , Lumaksana B. , Darian-Smith I. (1985). "A stimulator for moving textured surfaces sinusoidally across the skin", J. Neurosci. Meth. Vol 14, 121125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0165-0270(85)90124-4
71. Halje P. , Seeck M. , Blanke O. , Ionta S. (2015). "Inferior frontal oscillations reveal visuo-motor matching for actions and speech: evidence from human intracranial recordings", Neuropsychologia Vol 79B, 206214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.08.015
72. Hao Z. , Wang D. , Zeng Y. , Liu M. (2013). "Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for improving function after stroke", Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. Vol 5, CD008862. DOI:.
73. Hayward V. , Terekhov A. V. , Wong S.-C. , Geborek P. , Bengtsson F. , Jörntell H. (2014). "Spatio-temporal skin strain distributions evoke low variability spike responses in cuneate neurons", J. R. Soc. Interface Vol 11, 20131015. DOI:. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2013.1015
74. Hsiao S. S. , Lane J. , Fitzgerald P. (2002). "Representation of orientation in the somatosensory system", Behav. Brain Res. Vol 135, 93103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0166-4328(02)00160-2
75. Huerta M. F. , Pons T. P. (1990). "Primary motor cortex receives input from area 3a in macaques", Brain Res. Vol 537, 367371. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(90)90388-R
76. Ionta S. , Ferretti A. , Merla A. , Tartaro A. , Romani G. L. (2010). "Step-by-step: the effects of physical practice on the neural correlates of locomotion imagery revealed by fMRI", Hum. Brain Mapp. Vol 31, 694702. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.20898
77. Ionta S. , Sforza A. , Funato M. , Blanke O. (2013). "Anatomically plausible illusory posture affects mental rotation of body parts", Cogn. Affect. Behav. Neurosci. Vol 13, 197209. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13415-012-0120-z
78. Ionta S. , Martuzzi R. , Salomon R. , Blanke O. (2014). "The brain network reflecting bodily self-consciousness: a functional connectivity study", Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. Vol 9, 19041913. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/scan/nst185
79. Ionta S. , Villiger M. , Jutzeler C. , Curt A. , Gassert R. (2016). "Spinal cord injury affects the interplay between visual and sensorimotor representations of the body", Sci. Rep. Vol 6, 20144. DOI:.
80. Ishida H. , Fornia L. , Grandi L. C. , Umiltà M. A. , Gallese V. (2013). "Somato-motor haptic processing in posterior inner perisylvian region (SII/pIC) of the macaque monkey", PLoS ONE Vol 8, e69931. DOI:.
81. Jang S. H. (2010). "Prediction of motor outcome for hemiparetic stroke patients using diffusion tensor imaging: a review", NeuroRehabilitation Vol 27, 367372.
82. Johansson R. S. , Flanagan J. R. (2009). "Coding and use of tactile signals from the fingertips in object manipulation tasks", Nat. Rev. Neurosci. Vol 10, 345359. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrn2621
83. Johnson K. O. (2001). "The roles and functions of cutaneous mechanoreceptors", Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. Vol 11, 455461. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0959-4388(00)00234-8
84. Johnson K. O. , Lamb G. (1981). "Neural mechanisms of spatial tactile discrimination: neural patterns evoked by braille-like dot patterns in the monkey", J. Physiol. Vol 310, 117144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.1981.sp013540
85. Johnson K. O. , Phillips J. R. (1988). "A rotating drum stimulator for scanning embossed patterns and textures across the skin", J. Neurosci. Meth. Vol 22, 221231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0165-0270(88)90043-X
86. Jörntell H. , Bengtsson F. , Geborek P. , Spanne A. , Terekhov A. V. , Hayward V. (2014). "Segregation of tactile input features in neurons of the cuneate nucleus", Neuron Vol 83, 14441452. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2014.07.038
87. Kato N. , Tanaka T. , Sugihara S. , Shimizu K. (2015). "Development and evaluation of a new telerehabilitation system based on VR technology using multisensory feedback for patients with stroke", J. Phys. Ther. Sci. Vol 27, 31853190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1589/jpts.27.3185
88. Killebrew J. H. , Bensmaia S. J. , Dammann J. F. , Denchev P. , Hsiao S. S. , Craig J. C. , Johnson K. O. (2007). "A dense array stimulator to generate arbitrary spatio-temporal tactile stimuli", J. Neurosci. Meth. Vol 161, 6274. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2006.10.012
89. Kim E. , Sugg K. , Langhals N. , Lightbody S. , Baltrusaitis M. , Urbanchek M. , Cederna P. , Gerling G. J. (2013). "An engineered tactile afferent modulation platform to elicit compound sensory nerve action potentials in response to force magnitude", in: IEEE World Haptics Conference (WHC), 2013, Daejeon, Korea, pp.  241246. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/WHC.2013.6548415
90. Kleim J. A. , Jones T. A. (2008). "Principles of experience-dependent neural plasticity: implications for rehabilitation after brain damage", J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. Vol 51, S225S239. http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2008/018)
91. Klöcker A. , Oddo C. M. , Camboni D. , Penta M. , Thonnard J.-L. (2014). "Physical factors influencing pleasant touch during passive fingertip stimulation", PLoS ONE Vol 9, e101361. DOI:. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101361
92. Ku J. , Mraz R. , Baker N. , Zakzanis K. K. , Lee J. H. , Kim I. Y. , Kim S. I. , Graham S. J. (2003). "A data glove with tactile feedback for FMRI of virtual reality experiments", Cyberpsychol. Behav. Vol 6, 497508. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/109493103769710523
93. Kyung K.-U. , Ahn M. , Kwon D.-S. , Srinivasan M. A. (2006). "A compact planar distributed tactile display and effects of frequency on texture judgment", Adv. Robot. Vol 20, 563580. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156855306776985540
94. LaMotte R. , Whitehouse G. , Robinson C. , Davis F. (1983). "A tactile stimulator for controlled movements of textured surfaces across the skin", J. Electrophysiol. Techn. Vol 10, 117.
95. Lang C. E. , Wagner J. M. , Edwards D. F. , Dromerick A. W. (2007). "Upper extremity use in people with hemiparesis in the first few weeks after stroke", J. Neurol. Phys. Ther. Vol 31, 5663. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NPT.0b013e31806748bd
96. Lang C. E. , Macdonald J. R. , Reisman D. S. , Boyd L. , Jacobson Kimberley T. , Schindler-Ivens S. M. , Hornby T. G. , Ross S. A. , Scheets P. L. (2009). "Observation of amounts of movement practice provided during stroke rehabilitation", Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. Vol 90, 16921698. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2009.04.005
97. Le Q. , Qu Y. , Tao Y. , Zhu S. (2014). "Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on hand function recovery and excitability of the motor cortex after stroke: a meta-analysis", Am. J. Phys. Med. Rehabil. Vol 93, 422430. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PHM.0000000000000027
98. Leergaard T. B. , Bjaalie J. G. (2007). "Topography of the complete corticopontine projection: from experiments to principal maps", Front. Neurosci. Vol 1, 211223. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/neuro.01.1.1.016.2007
99. Lefaucheur J. P. , Andre-Obadia N. , Antal A. , Ayache S. S. , Baeken C. , Benninger D. H. , Cantello R. M. , Cincotta M. , de Carvalho M. , De Ridder D. , Devanne H. , Di Lazzaro V. , Filipovic S. R. , Hummel F. C. , Jaaskelainen S. K. , Kimiskidis V. K. , Koch G. , Langguth B. , Nyffeler T. , Oliviero A. , Padberg F. , Poulet E. , Rossi S. , Rossini P. M. , Rothwell J. C. , Schonfeldt-Lecuona C. , Siebner H. R. , Slotema C. W. , Stagg C. J. , Valls-Sole J. , Ziemann U. , Paulus W. , Garcia-Larrea L. (2014). "Evidence-based guidelines on the therapeutic use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)", Clin. Neurophysiol. Vol 125, 21502206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2014.05.021
100. Löken L. S. , Wessberg J. , Morrison I. , McGlone F. , Olausson H. (2009). "Coding of pleasant touch by unmyelinated afferents in humans", Nat. Neurosci. Vol 12, 547548. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nn.2312
101. Looft F. J. , Williams W. J. (1979). "On-line receptive field mapping of cutaneous receptors", IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. Vol 26, 350356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TBME.1979.326564
102. Luke L. M. , Allred R. P. , Jones T. A. (2004). "Unilateral ischemic sensorimotor cortical damage induces contralesional synaptogenesis and enhances skilled reaching with the ipsilateral forelimb in adult male rats", Synapse Vol 54, 187199. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.20080
103. Lunghi C. , Morrone M. C. (2013). "Early interaction between vision and touch during binocular rivalry", Multisens. Res. Vol 26, 291306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/22134808-00002411
104. Martuzzi R. , Van der Zwaag W. , Farthouat J. , Gruetter R. , Blanke O. (2014). "Human finger somatotopy in areas 3b, 1, and 2: a 7T fMRI study using a natural stimulus", Hum. Brain Mapp. Vol 35, 213226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.22172
105. Matyas F. , Sreenivasan V. , Marbach F. , Wacongne C. , Barsy B. , Mateo C. , Aronoff R. , Petersen C. C. (2010). "Motor control by sensory cortex", Science Vol 330, 12401243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1195797
106. McGlone F. , Wessberg J. , Olausson H. (2014). "Discriminative and affective touch: sensing and feeling", Neuron Vol 82, 737755. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2014.05.001
107. Meehan S. K. , Randhawa B. , Wessel B. , Boyd L. A. (2011). "Implicit sequence-specific motor learning after subcortical stroke is associated with increased prefrontal brain activations: an fMRI study", Hum. Brain Mapp. Vol 32, 290303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.21019
108. Meyer K. , Kaplan J. T. , Essex R. , Damasio H. , Damasio A. (2011). "Seeing touch is correlated with content-specific activity in primary somatosensory cortex", Cereb. Cortex Vol 21, 21132121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhq289
109. Mountcastle V. B. (1957). "Modality and topographic properties of single neurons of cat’s somatic sensory cortex", J. Neurophysiol. Vol 20, 408434.
110. Murase N. , Duque J. , Mazzocchio R. , Cohen L. G. (2004). "Influence of interhemispheric interactions on motor function in chronic stroke", Ann. Neurol. Vol 55, 400409. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.10848
111. Murray E. A. , Mishkin M. (1984). "Relative contributions of SII and area 5 to tactile discrimination in monkeys", Behav. Brain Res. Vol 11, 6783. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0166-4328(84)90009-3
112. Nakazawa N. , Ikeura R. , Inooka H. (2000). "Characteristics of human fingertips in the shearing direction", Biol. Cybern. Vol 82, 207214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s004220050020
113. Oddo C. M. , Beccai L. , Vitiello N. , Wasling H. B. , Wessberg J. , Carrozza M. C. (2011a). "A mechatronic platform for human touch studies", Mechatronics Vol 21, 604613. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mechatronics.2011.02.012
114. Oddo C. M. , Controzzi M. , Beccai L. , Cipriani C. , Carrozza M. C. (2011b). "Roughness encoding for discrimination of surfaces in artificial active-touch", IEEE Trans. Robot. Vol 27, 522533. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TRO.2011.2116930
115. Oddo C. M. , Raspopovic S. , Artoni F. , Mazzoni A. , Spigler G. , Petrini F. , Giambattistelli F. , Vecchio F. , Miraglia F. , Zollo L. , Pino G. D. , Camboni D. , Carrozza M. C. , Guglielmelli E. , Rossini P. M. , Faraguna U. , Micera S. (2016). "Intraneural stimulation elicits discrimination of textural features by artificial fingertip in intact and amputee humans", eLife, DOI:.
116. Olausson H. , Lamarre Y. , Backlund H. , Morin C. , Wallin B. G. , Starck G. , Ekholm S. , Strigo I. , Worsley K. , Vallbo A. B. , Bushnell M. C. (2002). "Unmyelinated tactile afferents signal touch and project to insular cortex", Nat. Neurosci. Vol 5, 900904. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nn896
117. Ortiz-Catalan M. , Håkansson B. , Brånemark R. (2014). "An osseointegrated human–machine gateway for long-term sensory feedback and motor control of artificial limbs", Science Transl. Med. Vol 6, 257re256. DOI:. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.3008933
118. Pawluk D. T. , Howe R. D. (1999). "Dynamic lumped element response of the human fingerpad", J. Biomech. Eng. Vol 121, 178183. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.2835100
119. Penfield W. , Boldrey E. (1937). "Somatic motor and sensory representation in the cerebral cortex of man as studied by electrical stimulation", Brain Vol 60, 389443. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/60.4.389
120. Perruchoud D. , Murray M. M. , Lefebvre J. , Ionta S. (2014). "Focal dystonia and the sensory-motor integrative loop for enacting (SMILE)", Front. Hum. Neurosci. Vol 8, 458. DOI:. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00458
121. Picard N. , Smith A. (1992). "Primary motor cortical activity related to the weight and texture of grasped objects in the monkey", J. Neurophysiol. Vol 68, 18671881.
122. Pihko E. , Nangini C. , Jousmäki V. , Hari R. (2010). "Observing touch activates human primary somatosensory cortex", Eur. J. Neurosci. Vol 31, 18361843. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2010.07192.x
123. Pisotta I. , Perruchoud D. , Ionta S. (2015). "Hand-in-hand advances in biomedical engineering and sensorimotor restoration", J. Neurosci. Meth. Vol 246, 2229. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2015.03.003
124. Pohl P. S. , Winstein C. J. (1999). "Practice effects on the less-affected upper extremity after stroke", Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. Vol 80, 668675. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-9993(99)90170-3
125. Qiu M. , Darling W. G. , Morecraft R. J. , Ni C. C. , Rajendra J. , Butler A. J. (2011). "White matter integrity is a stronger predictor of motor function than BOLD response in patients with stroke", Neurorehabil. Neural Repair Vol 25, 275284. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1545968310389183
126. Rasmussen T. , Penfield W. (1947). "The human sensorimotor cortex as studied by electrical stimulation", Fed. Proc. Vol 6, 184.
127. Raspopovic S. , Capogrosso M. , Petrini F. M. , Bonizzato M. , Rigosa J. , Di Pino G. , Carpaneto J. , Controzzi M. , Boretius T. , Fernandez E. , Granata G. , Oddo C. M. , Citi L. , Ciancio A. L. , Cipriani C. , Carrozza M. C. , Jensen W. , Guglielmelli E. , Stieglitz T. , Rossini P. M. , Micera S. (2014). "Restoring natural sensory feedback in real-time bidirectional hand prostheses", Science Transl. Med. Vol 6, 222ra219. DOI:. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.3006820
128. Rizzolatti G. , Fogassi L. , Gallese V. (2002). "Motor and cognitive functions of the ventral premotor cortex", Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. Vol 12, 149154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0959-4388(02)00308-2
129. Romo R. , Ruiz S. , Crespo P. , Hsiao S. S. (1993). "A tactile stimulator for studying motion processing in the somatic sensory system of primates", J. Neurosci. Meth. Vol 46, 139146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0165-0270(93)90149-L
130. Romo R. , Hernández A. , Zainos A. , Brody C. , Salinas E. (2002a). "Exploring the cortical evidence of a sensory-discrimination process", Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. Vol 357, 10391051. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2002.1100
131. Romo R. , Hernández A. , Zainos A. , Lemus L. , Brody C. D. (2002b). "Neuronal correlates of decision-making in secondary somatosensory cortex", Nat. Neurosci. Vol 5, 12171225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nn950
132. Rongala U. B. , Mazzoni A. , Camboni D. , Carrozza M. C. , Oddo C. M. (2015). "Neuromorphic artificial sense of touch: bridging robotics and neuroscience", in: International Symposium on Robotics Research, Bicchi Worg A. (Ed.), pp.  114. Sestri Levante, Italy.
133. Rossetti A. , Miniussi C. , Maravita A. , Bolognini N. (2012). "Visual perception of bodily interactions in the primary somatosensory cortex", Eur. J. Neurosci. Vol 36, 23172323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08137.x
134. Rothwell J. C. , Traub M. M. , Day B. L. , Obeso J. A. , Thomas P. K. , Marsden C. D. (1982). "Manual motor performance in a deafferented man", Brain Vol 105, 515542. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/105.3.515
135. Ruben J. , Schwiemann J. , Deuchert M. , Meyer R. , Krause T. , Curio G. , Villringer K. , Kurth R. , Villringer A. (2001). "Somatotopic organization of human secondary somatosensory cortex", Cereb. Cortex Vol 11, 463473. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/11.5.463
136. Saal H. P. , Bensmaia S. J. (2015). "Biomimetic approaches to bionic touch through a peripheral nerve interface", Neuropsychologia Vol 79B, 344353. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.06.010
137. Sanchez-Panchuelo R. M. , Francis S. , Bowtell R. , Schluppeck D. (2010). "Mapping human somatosensory cortex in individual subjects with 7T functional MRI", J. Neurophysiol. Vol 103, 25442556. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.01017.2009
138. Sanchez-Panchuelo R. M. , Besle J. , Beckett A. , Bowtell R. , Schluppeck D. , Francis S. (2012). "Within-digit functional parcellation of Brodmann areas of the human primary somatosensory cortex using functional magnetic resonance imaging at 7 Tesla", J. Neurosci. Vol 32, 1581515822. http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2501-12.2012
139. Sanger T. D. , Merzenich M. M. (2000). "Computational model of the role of sensory disorganization in focal task-specific dystonia", J. Neurophysiol. Vol 84, 24582464.
140. Sawaki L. , Butler A. J. , Xiaoyan L. , Wassenaar P. A. , Mohammad Y. M. , Blanton S. , Sathian K. , Nichols-Larsen D. S. , Wolf S. L. , Good D. C. , Wittenberg G. F. (2008). "Constraint-induced movement therapy results in increased motor map area in subjects 3 to 9 months after stroke", Neurorehabil. Neural Repair Vol 22, 505513. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1545968308317531
141. Schaechter J. D. , Moore C. I. , Connell B. D. , Rosen B. R. , Dijkhuizen R. M. (2006). "Structural and functional plasticity in the somatosensory cortex of chronic stroke patients", Brain Vol 129, 27222733. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awl214
142. Schaechter J. D. , Fricker Z. P. , Perdue K. L. , Helmer K. G. , Vangel M. G. , Greve D. N. , Makris N. (2009). "Microstructural status of ipsilesional and contralesional corticospinal tract correlates with motor skill in chronic stroke patients", Hum. Brain Mapp. Vol 30, 34613474. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.20770
143. Schaefer M. , Xu B. , Flor H. , Cohen L. G. (2009). "Effects of different viewing perspectives on somatosensory activations during observation of touch", Hum. Brain Mapp. Vol 30, 27222730. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.20701
144. Scheibert J. , Leurent S. , Prevost A. , Debrégeas G. (2009). "The role of fingerprints in the coding of tactile information probed with a biomimetic sensor", Science Vol 323, 15031506. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1166467
145. Schlerf J. , Ivry R. B. , Diedrichsen J. (2012). "Encoding of sensory prediction errors in the human cerebellum", J. Neurosci. Vol 32, 49134922. http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4504-11.2012
146. Scholz J. , Klein M. C. , Behrens T. E. , Johansen-Berg H. (2009). "Training induces changes in white-matter architecture", Nat. Neurosci. Vol 12, 13701371. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nn.2412
147. Shadmehr R. , Krakauer J. W. (2008). "A computational neuroanatomy for motor control", Exp. Brain Res. Vol 185, 359381. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-008-1280-5
148. Shimizu E. , Hashimoto K. , Iyo M. (2004). "Major depressive disorders and BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor)", Jpn. J. Psychopharmacol. Vol 24, 147150.
149. Simões-Franklin C. , Whitaker T. A. , Newell F. N. (2011). "Active and passive touch differentially activate somatosensory cortex in texture perception", Hum. Brain Mapp. Vol 32, 10671080. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.21091
150. Sinclair R. J. , Burton H. (1993). "Neuronal activity in the second somatosensory cortex of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) during active touch of gratings", J. Neurophysiol. Vol 70, 331350.
151. Sporns O. , Chialvo D. R. , Kaiser M. , Hilgetag C. C. (2004). "Organization, development and function of complex brain networks", Trends Cogn. Sci. Vol 8, 418425. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2004.07.008
152. Stinear C. M. , Barber P. A. , Smale P. R. , Coxon J. P. , Fleming M. K. , Byblow W. D. (2007). "Functional potential in chronic stroke patients depends on corticospinal tract integrity", Brain Vol 130, 170180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awl333
153. Stinear C. M. , Barber P. A. , Petoe M. , Anwar S. , Byblow W. D. (2012). "The PREP algorithm predicts potential for upper limb recovery after stroke", Brain Vol 135, 25272535. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/aws146
154. Stringer E. A. , Chen L. M. , Friedman R. M. , Gatenby C. , Gore J. C. (2011). "Differentiation of somatosensory cortices by high-resolution fMRI at 7 T", Neuroimage Vol 54, 10121020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.09.058
155. Stys P. K. , Lipton S. A. (2008). "White matter NMDA receptors: an unexpected new therapeutic target?" Trends Pharmacol. Sci. Vol 28, 561566. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tips.2007.10.003
156. Summers I. R. , Chanter C. M. (2002). "A broadband tactile array on the fingertip", J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Vol 112, 21182126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1510140
157. Sun H. , Blakely T. M. , Darvas F. , Wander J. D. , Johnson L. A. , Su D. K. , Miller K. J. , Fetz E. E. , Ojemann J. G. (2015). "Sequential activation of premotor, primary somatosensory and primary motor areas in humans during cued finger movements", Clin. Neurophysiol. Vol 11, 21502161. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2015.01.005
158. Tamburin S. , Manganotti P. , Zanette G. , Fiaschi A. (2001). "Cutaneomotor integration in human hand motor areas: somatotopic effect and interaction of afferents", Exp. Brain Res. Vol 141, 232241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002210100859
159. Tan D. W. , Schiefer M. A. , Keith M. W. , Anderson J. R. , Tyler J. , Tyler D. J. (2014). "A neural interface provides long-term stable natural touch perception", Science Transl. Med. Vol 6, 257ra138. DOI:. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.3008669
160. Tanaka K. , Nogawa S. , Suzuki S. , Dembo T. , Kosakai A. (2003). "Upregulation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells associated with restoration of mature oligodendrocytes and myelination in peri-infarct area in the rat brain", Brain Res. Vol 989, 172179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-8993(03)03317-1
161. Tanji J. , Shima K. , Mushiake H. (1996). "Multiple cortical motor areas and temporal sequencing of movements", Cogn. Brain Res. Vol 5, 117122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0926-6410(96)00047-X
162. Taub E. , Miller N. E. , Novack T. A. , Cook E. W. , Fleming W. C. , Nepomuceno C. S. , Connell J. S. , Crago J. E. (1993). "Technique to improve chronic motor deficit after stroke", Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. Vol 74, 347354.
163. Thakur P. H. , Fitzgerald P. J. , Lane J. W. , Hsiao S. S. (2006). "Receptive field properties of the macaque second somatosensory cortex: nonlinear mechanisms underlying the representation of orientation within a finger pad", J. Neurosci. Vol 26, 1356713575. http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3990-06.2006
164. Tinga A. M. , Visser-Meily J. M. A. , Van der Smagt M. J. , Van der Stigchel S. , Van Ee R. , Nijboer T. C. W. (2016). "Multisensory stimulation to improve low-and higher-level sensory deficits after stroke: a systematic review", Neuropsychol. Rev. Vol 26, 7391. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11065-015-9301-1
165. Tomassini A. , Gori M. , Burr D. , Sandini G. , Morrone M. C. (2011). "Perceived duration of visual and tactile stimuli depends on perceived speed", Front. Integr. Neurosci. Vol 5, 51. DOI:. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnint.2011.00051
166. Tononi G. , Cirelli C. (2014). "Sleep and the price of plasticity: from synaptic and cellular homeostasis to memory consolidation and integration", Neuron Vol 81, 1234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2013.12.025
167. Vallbo A. , Olausson H. , Wessberg J. , Norrsell U. (1993). "A system of unmyelinated afferents for innocuous mechanoreception in the human skin", Brain Res. Vol 628, 301304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(93)90968-S
168. Vallbo A. B. , Olausson H. , Wessberg J. , Kakuda N. (1995). "Receptive field characteristics of tactile units with myelinated afferents in hairy skin of human subjects", J. Physiol. Vol 483, 783795. http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.1995.sp020622
169. Van den Brink R. L. , Cohen M. X. , Van der Burg E. , Talsma D. , Vissers M. E. , Slagter H. A. (2014). "Subcortical, modality-specific pathways contribute to multisensory processing in humans", Cereb. Cortex Vol 24, 21692177. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bht069
170. Van der Knaap M. , Valk J. (2005). Magnetic Resonance of Myelination and Myelin Disorders, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin, Germany. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/3-540-27660-2
171. Velicki M. R. , Winstein C. J. , Pohl P. S. (2000). "Impaired direction and extent specification of aimed arm movements in humans with stroke-related brain damage", Exp. Brain Res. Vol 130, 362374. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002219900262
172. Vidal-Verdú F. , Hafez M. (2007). "Graphical tactile displays for visually-impaired people", IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng. Vol 15, 119130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNSRE.2007.891375
173. Vidoni E. D. , Boyd L. A. (2009). "Preserved motor learning after stroke is related to the degree of proprioceptive deficit", Behav. Brain Funct. Vol 5, 36. DOI:. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1744-9081-5-36
174. Von Holst E. , Mittelstaedt H. (1950). "Das reafferenz Princip: (Wechlselwirkungen zwischen Zentrainervensystem und Peripherie)", Naturwissenschaften Vol 37, 464476. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00622503
175. Weber A. I. , Saal H. P. , Lieber J. D. , Cheng J.-W. , Manfredi L. R. , Dammann J. F. , Bensmaia S. J. (2013). "Spatial and temporal codes mediate the tactile perception of natural textures", Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA Vol 110, 1710717112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1305509110
176. Weinstein S. (1968). "Intensive and extensive aspects of tactile sensitivity as a function of body part, sex and laterality", in: The Skin Senses, Kenshalo D. (Ed.), pp.  192222. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL, USA.
177. Weiskrantz L. , Elliot J. , Darlington C. (1971). "Preliminary observations on tickling oneself", Nature Vol 230(5296), 598599. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/230598a0
178. Werring D. J. , Toosy A. T. , Clark C. A. , Parker G. J. , Barker G. J. , Miller D. H. , Thompson A. J. (2000). "Diffusion tensor imaging can detect and quantify corticospinal tract degeneration after stroke", J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry Vol 69, 269272. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.69.2.269
179. Wheat H. E. , Salo L. M. , Goodwin A. W. (2004). "Human ability to scale and discriminate forces typical of those occurring during grasp and manipulation", J. Neurosci. Vol 24, 33943401. http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4822-03.2004
180. Wiertlewski M. , Lozada J. , Hayward V. (2011). "The spatial spectrum of tangential skin displacement can encode tactual texture", IEEE Trans. Robot. Vol 27, 461472. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TRO.2011.2132830
181. Winstein C. J. , Merians A. S. , Sullivan K. J. (1999). "Motor learning after unilateral brain damage", Neuropsychologia Vol 37, 975987. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0028-3932(98)00145-6
182. Wolpert D. M. , Ghahramani Z. , Jordan M. I. (1995). "An internal model for sensorimotor integration", Science Vol 269, 18801882. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.7569931
183. Wolpert D. M. , Goodbody S. J. , Husain M. (1998). "Maintaining internal representations: the role of the human superior parietal lobe", Nat. Neurosci. Vol 1, 529533. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/2245
184. Wolpert D. M. , Miall R. C. , Kawato M. (1998). "Internal models in the cerebellum", Trends Cogn. Sci. Vol 2, 338347. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1364-6613(98)01221-2
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/22134808-00002530
Loading
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/22134808-00002530
2016-06-08
2017-11-23

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation