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Forty Years After Hearing Lips and Seeing Voices: the McGurk Effect Revisited

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Since its discovery 40 years ago, the McGurk illusion has been usually cited as a prototypical paradigmatic case of multisensory binding in humans, and has been extensively used in speech perception studies as a proxy measure for audiovisual integration mechanisms. Despite the well-established practice of using the McGurk illusion as a tool for studying the mechanisms underlying audiovisual speech integration, the magnitude of the illusion varies enormously across studies. Furthermore, the processing of McGurk stimuli differs from congruent audiovisual processing at both phenomenological and neural levels. This questions the suitability of this illusion as a tool to quantify the necessary and sufficient conditions under which audiovisual integration occurs in natural conditions. In this paper, we review some of the practical and theoretical issues related to the use of the McGurk illusion as an experimental paradigm. We believe that, without a richer understanding of the mechanisms involved in the processing of the McGurk effect, experimenters should be really cautious when generalizing data generated by McGurk stimuli to matching audiovisual speech events.

Affiliations: 1: Psychology Department, Queen’s University, Humphrey Hall, 62 Arch St., Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 Canada

*To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail:

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